Permeation of chemical solutes through skin can create major health issues. Using the membrane-coated fiber (MCF) as a solid phase membrane extraction (SPME) approach to simulate skin permeation, we obtained partition coefficients for 37 solutes under 90 treatment combinations that could broadly represent formulations that could be associated with occupational skin exposure. These formulations were designed to mimic fluids in the metalworking process, and they are defined in this manuscript using: one of mineral oil, polyethylene glycol-200, soluble oil, synthetic oil, or semi-synthetic oil; at a concentration of 0.05 or 0.5 or 5 percent; with solute concentration of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, or 5 ppm. A single linear free-energy relationship (LFER) model was shown to be inadequate, but extensions that account for experimental conditions provide important improvements in estimating solute partitioning from selected formulations into the MCF. The benefit of the Expanded Nested-Solute-Concentration LFER model over the Expanded Crossed-Factors LFER model is only revealed through a careful leave-one-solute-out cross-validation that properly addresses the existence of replicates to avoid an overly optimistic view of predictive power. Finally, the partition theory that accompanies the MCF approach is thoroughly tested and found to not be supported under complex experimental settings that mimic occupational exposure in the metalworking industry.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited