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Open AccessArticle

Similarity of Data from Bee Bread with the Same Taxa Collected in India and Romania

1
Department of Apiculture and Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Manastur Street, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Romania
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Manastur Street, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Romania
3
Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Manastur Street, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Romania
4
Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal
5
Coimbra Chemistry Centre (CQC, FCT Unit 313) (FCTUC), University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
6
Observatory of Herb-Drug Interactions/Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Heath Sciences Campus, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2491; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102491
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
Bee Bread samples from Romania and India were analysed by microscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC/DAD) and compared with pollen from the correspondent taxa. The quantification of sugars, fructose/glucose ratio, total phenolics and flavonoids was also carried out. From the results was possible to identify Brassica and Eucalyptus samples that present similar HPLC/DAD profiles with the respective ultraviolet (UV) identification of the main compounds as Kaempferol-3-O-glycosides and Hydrocinnamic acid derivatives. The Fructose/Glucose (F/G) ratio and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids was in line with the prevalence of the specie identified. These coincident fingerprints gave the identification of the samples, as was previously proposed for bee pollens. This paper relates for the first time the achievement on the taxon carried out previously only for bee pollens. It was reported for the first time that this phenolic profile remains unchanged in the case of floral pollen (hand collected), bee pollen and bee bread. Despite the biochemical transformation that occurs during the fermentation of bee bread, it seems that these phenolic compounds are not affected and remain unchanged. Also, variables such as soil and climate do not seem to influence these compounds for the kind of samples under study. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee bread; sugar; phenolic; flavonoids; fermentation bee bread; sugar; phenolic; flavonoids; fermentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Urcan, A.C.; Criste, A.D.; Dezmirean, D.S.; Mărgăoan, R.; Caeiro, A.; Graça Campos, M. Similarity of Data from Bee Bread with the Same Taxa Collected in India and Romania. Molecules 2018, 23, 2491. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102491

AMA Style

Urcan AC, Criste AD, Dezmirean DS, Mărgăoan R, Caeiro A, Graça Campos M. Similarity of Data from Bee Bread with the Same Taxa Collected in India and Romania. Molecules. 2018; 23(10):2491. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102491

Chicago/Turabian Style

Urcan, Adriana C.; Criste, Adriana D.; Dezmirean, Daniel S.; Mărgăoan, Rodica; Caeiro, André; Graça Campos, Maria. 2018. "Similarity of Data from Bee Bread with the Same Taxa Collected in India and Romania" Molecules 23, no. 10: 2491. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102491

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