Phenolics Isolated from Aframomum meleguta Enhance Proliferation and Ossification Markers in Bone Cells
Medicinal Plants Research Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 80230, Saudi Arabia
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21523, Saudi Arabia
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21523, Saudi Arabia
Pharmacology Department, Medical Division, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
Department of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt
Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091467
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Current antiosteoporotic agents exhibit a wide range of adverse effects; meanwhile, phytochemicals are effective and safer alternatives. In the current work, nine compounds belonging to hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid groups were isolated from Aframomum meleguea seeds and identified as 6-gingerol (1), 6-paradol (2), 8-dehydrogingerdione (3), 8-gingerol (4), dihydro-6-paradol (5), dihydrogingerenone A (6), dihydrogingerenone C (7), 1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (8), and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (9). The structures of isolated compounds were established by NMR and mass spectral data, in addition to referring to literature data. Exposure of MCF-7, MG-63, and SAOS-2 cells to subcytotoxic concentrations of the compounds under investigation resulted in accelerated proliferation. Among them, paradol was selected for further detailed biochemical analysis in SAOS-2 cells. DNA flowcytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution revealed that paradol did not induce any significant change in the proliferation index of SAOS-2 cells. Assessment of osteogenic gene expression revealed that paradol enhanced the expression of osteocyte and osteoblast-related genes and inhibited osteoclast and RUNX suppressor genes. Biochemically, paradol enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and vitamin D content and decreased the osteoporotic marker acid phosphatase. In conclusion, paradol, which is a major constituents of A. melegueta seeds, exhibited potent proliferative and ossification characteristics in bone cells.