Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Spectral Properties of meso-Arylbacteriochlorins, Including Insights into Essential Motifs of their Hydrodipyrrin Precursors
Next Article in Special Issue
Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils
Previous Article in Journal
Na+i,K+i-Dependent and -Independent Signaling Triggered by Cardiotonic Steroids: Facts and Artifacts
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bergamot Essential Oil Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behaviour in Rats
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 591;

The Effect of Citrus Essential Oils and Their Constituents on Growth of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad, Iran
Iran Citrus Research Institute, 33546915 Ramsar, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Olga Tzakou
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1921 KB, uploaded 26 April 2017]   |  


Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is the most devastating of the citrus diseases worldwide. During our study, we found that Essential oils (EOs) of some citrus cultivars are effective on Xcc. Therefore, it prompted us to determine the plant metabolites responsible for the antibacterial properties. We obtained EOs from some locally cultivated citrus by using a Clevenger apparatus and their major constituents were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effect of Citrus aurantium, C. aurantifolia, Fortunella sp. EOs and their major constituents were evaluated against Xcc-KVXCC1 using a disk diffusion assay. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the EOs and their constituents were determined using the broth microdilution method. C. aurantium, C. aurantifolia Eos, and their major constituents including citral, linalool, citronellal, geraniol, α-terpineol, and linalyl acetate indicated antibacterial effects against Xcc. The C. aurantifolia EO and citral showed the highest antibacterial activity among the tested EOs and constituents with inhibition zones of 15 ± 0.33 mm and 16.67 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. Synergistic effects of the constituents were observed between α-terpineol-citral, citral-citronellal, citral-geraniol, and citronellal-geraniol by using a microdilution checkerboard assay. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that exposure of Xcc cells to citral caused cell wall damage and altered cytoplasmic density. We introduced C. aurantifolia and C. aurantium EOs, and their constituents citral, α-terpineol, citronellal, geraniol, and linalool as possible control agents for CBC. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus aurantifolia; C. aurantium; citral; synergistic effect; transmission electron microscopy Citrus aurantifolia; C. aurantium; citral; synergistic effect; transmission electron microscopy

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mirzaei-Najafgholi, H.; Tarighi, S.; Golmohammadi, M.; Taheri, P. The Effect of Citrus Essential Oils and Their Constituents on Growth of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Molecules 2017, 22, 591.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top