Next Article in Journal
Heterocyclic Analogues of Xanthone and Xanthione. 1H-Pyrano[2,3-c:6,5-c]dipyrazol-4(7H)-ones and Thiones: Synthesis and NMR Data
Next Article in Special Issue
Kinin Receptor Antagonists as Potential Neuroprotective Agents in Central Nervous System Injury
Previous Article in Journal
Antiradical and Cytoprotective Activities of Several C-Geranyl-substituted Flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa Fruit
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training Induces Tolerance to Brain Ischemia: Involvement of Glutamate and ERK1/2
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Neuroscientists as Cartographers: Mapping the Crossroads of Gonadal Hormones, Memory and Age Using Animal Models

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
Arizona Alzheimer's Consortium, Phoenix, AZ 85006, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2010, 15(9), 6050-6105;
Received: 18 June 2010 / Revised: 24 August 2010 / Accepted: 30 August 2010 / Published: 31 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies)
PDF [1229 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]


Cognitive function is multidimensional and complex, and research in multiple species indicates it is considerably impacted by age and gonadal hormone milieu. One domain of cognitive function particularly susceptible to age-related decrements is spatial memory. Gonadal hormones can alter spatial memory, and they are potent modulators of brain microstructure and function in many of the same brain areas affected by aging. In this paper, we review decades of animal and human literature to support a tertiary model representing interactions between gonadal hormones, spatial cognition and age given that: 1) gonadal hormones change with age, 2) age impacts spatial learning and memory, and 3) gonadal hormones impact spatial learning and memory. While much has been discovered regarding these individual tenets, the compass for future aging research points toward clarifying the interactions that exist between these three points, and understanding mediating variables. Indeed, identifying and aligning the various components of the complex interactions between these tenets, including evaluations using basic science, systems, and clinical perspectives, is the optimal approach to attempt to converge the many findings that may currently appear contradictory. In fact, as discoveries are being made it is becoming clear that the findings across studies that appear contradictory are not contradictory at all. Rather, there are mediating variables that are influencing outcome and affecting the extent, and even the direction, of the effects that gonadal hormones have on cognition during aging. These mediating variables are just starting to be understood. By aligning basic scientific discoveries with clinical interpretations, we can maximize the opportunities for discoveries and subsequent interventions to allow individuals to “optimize their aging” and find their own map to cognitive health as aging ensues. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogen; progesterone; androgens; cognition; aging estrogen; progesterone; androgens; cognition; aging

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bimonte-Nelson, H.A.; Acosta, J.I.; Talboom, J.S. Neuroscientists as Cartographers: Mapping the Crossroads of Gonadal Hormones, Memory and Age Using Animal Models. Molecules 2010, 15, 6050-6105.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top