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Open AccessArticle

Permutation Entropy and Irreversibility in Gait Kinematic Time Series from Patients with Mild Cognitive Decline and Early Alzheimer’s Dementia

1
Escuela de Fisioterapia de la ONCE, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28034 Madrid, Spain
2
Departamento de Anatomía, Histología y Neurociencia, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Visual Pathway Laboratory, Neuroimmunology Center and Neurology Department, Biomedical Research Center August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
4
Unidad de Trastornos Cognitivos, Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofía, 28702 Madrid, Spain
5
Paediatric Neurology, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital and VHIR (Euro-NMD, ERN-RND), 08035 Barcelona, Spain
6
Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Entropy 2019, 21(9), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21090868
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 31 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 6 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permutation Entropy: Theory and Applications)
Gait is a basic cognitive purposeful action that has been shown to be altered in late stages of neurodegenerative dementias. Nevertheless, alterations are less clear in mild forms of dementia, and the potential use of gait analysis as a biomarker of initial cognitive decline has hitherto mostly been neglected. Herein, we report the results of a study of gait kinematic time series for two groups of patients (mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease) and a group of matched control subjects. Two metrics based on permutation patterns are considered, respectively measuring the complexity and irreversibility of the time series. Results indicate that kinematic disorganisation is present in early phases of cognitive impairment; in addition, they depict a rich scenario, in which some joint movements display an increased complexity and irreversibility, while others a marked decrease. Beyond their potential use as biomarkers, complexity and irreversibility metrics can open a new door to the understanding of the role of the nervous system in gait, as well as its adaptation and compensatory mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: permutation entropy; irreversibility; gait; Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment permutation entropy; irreversibility; gait; Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment
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Martín-Gonzalo, J.-A.; Pulido-Valdeolivas, I.; Wang, Y.; Wang, T.; Chiclana-Actis, G.; Algarra-Lucas, M.C.; Palmí-Cortés, I.; Fernández Travieso, J.; Torrecillas-Narváez, M.D.; Miralles-Martinez, A.A.; Rausell, E.; Gómez-Andrés, D.; Zanin, M. Permutation Entropy and Irreversibility in Gait Kinematic Time Series from Patients with Mild Cognitive Decline and Early Alzheimer’s Dementia. Entropy 2019, 21, 868.

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