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Permutation Entropy and Irreversibility in Gait Kinematic Time Series from Patients with Mild Cognitive Decline and Early Alzheimer’s Dementia
Open AccessArticle

Permutation Entropy and Statistical Complexity in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: An Analysis Based on Frequency Bands

1
Laboratory of Biological Networks, Centre for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28223 Madrid, Spain
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Complex Systems Group, Rey Juan Carlos University, 28933 Madrid, Spain
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Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), 28911 Madrid, Spain
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Laboratory of Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience, Centre for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28223 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Experimental Psychology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain
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Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá 111711, Colombia
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Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, 28029 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2020, 22(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22010116
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2020 / Accepted: 16 January 2020 / Published: 18 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permutation Entropy: Theory and Applications)
We present one of the first applications of Permutation Entropy (PE) and Statistical Complexity (SC) (measured as the product of PE and Jensen-Shanon Divergence) on Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 46 subjects suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), 17 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and 48 healthy controls. We studied the differences in PE and SC in broadband signals and their decomposition into frequency bands ( δ , θ , α and β ), considering two modalities: (i) raw time series obtained from the magnetometers and (ii) a reconstruction into cortical sources or regions of interest (ROIs). We conducted our analyses at three levels: (i) at the group level we compared SC in each frequency band and modality between groups; (ii) at the individual level we compared how the [PE, SC] plane differs in each modality; and (iii) at the local level we explored differences in scalp and cortical space. We recovered classical results that considered only broadband signals and found a nontrivial pattern of alterations in each frequency band, showing that SC does not necessarily decrease in AD or MCI. View Full-Text
Keywords: statistical complexity; permutation entropy; Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment; regions of interest; frequency bands statistical complexity; permutation entropy; Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment; regions of interest; frequency bands
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Echegoyen, I.; López-Sanz, D.; Martínez, J.H.; Maestú, F.; Buldú, J.M. Permutation Entropy and Statistical Complexity in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: An Analysis Based on Frequency Bands. Entropy 2020, 22, 116.

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