A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2010)
Special Issue Editors
Guest Editor Prof. Dr. Richard A. Manderville
Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada
Website: http://www.chembio.uoguelph.ca/manderville/ E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: +1 519 824 4120 Fax: +1 519 766 1499 Interests: DNA damage by phenolic toxins including ochratoxin A; Modified DNA bases as fluorescent probes
Guest Editor Prof. Dr. Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
National Agronomical High School of Toulouse (ENSAT), Unit of Toxicology & Food safety, 1 avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326, Auzeville-Tolosane, France
E-Mail: email@example.com Phone: +33 534 323 947 Fax: +33 534 323 947 Interests: mycotoxin; ochratoxin; fumonisin; zearalenone; biomarker; risk evaluation; environmental toxicology; polycyclic aromatic compounds; genotoxicity; DNA adduct; balkan endemic nephropathy; kidney cancer; biotransformation
Special Issue Information
In the seminal paper published in Nature, 1965, van Der Merwe, Steyn, Fourie, Scott and Theron, reported the isolation of a new toxic metabolite, called ochratoxin A (now abbreviated OTA), from Aspergillus ochraceus. Structural analysis of the mycotoxin pointed to the presence of a chlorophenolic moiety containing a dihydroisocoumarin system amide-linked to L-phenylalanine with toxicity in ducklings of the same order as that of aflatoxin B1 from Aspergillus flavus. Subsequent experimental carcinogenicity studies in male rats and mice carried out in the 1980s demonstrated OTA to be a potent kidney carcinogen and highlighted the real possibility that OTA could be a human carcinogen. OTA causes kidney damage in farm animals and a number of studies also suggested a correlation between OTA exposure and a fatal human kidney disease called Balkan endemic nephropathy, in which patients exhibit a high incidence of urinary tract tumours. OTA is now regarded as the most toxic member of the ochratoxins, which have attracted considerable attention since they are one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins in the world and are classified as potentially carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Ongoing interdisciplinary research on the ochratoxins have been concerned with detection in feed and human foodstuff, occurrence and estimation of dietary intake, establishment of limits for human consumption based on risk assessment and understanding mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity for the development of detoxification processes. We hope that this special issue of Toxins entitled “Ochratoxins” will provide the readership with a better understanding of the key issues being addressed at the present time.
Prof. Dr. Richard A. Manderville Prof. Dr. Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz Guest Editor