Special Issue "Detoxification of Mycotoxins"
A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2014
Prof. Dr. Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
National Agronomical High School of Toulouse (ENSAT), Unit of Toxicology & Food safety, 1 avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326, Auzeville-Tolosane, France
Phone: +33 534 323 947
Fax: +33 534 323 947
Interests: mycotoxin; ochratoxin; fumonisin; zearalenone; biomarker; risk evaluation; environmental toxicology; polycyclic aromatic compounds; genotoxicity; DNA adduct; balkan endemic nephropathy; kidney cancer; biotransformation
Contamination of food and agricultural commodities by various types of toxigenic molds is a serious problem. Fungi are naturally present and can contaminate food crop under favorable conditions of temperature, relative humidity, pH, nutrient availability and oxygen. Besides the loss of crop and foodstuffs, the production of mycotoxins represents a big problem, since it has been associated with a wide range of negative effects for human health including carcinogenic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic effects. In animals, mycotoxins decrease performance, cause feed refusal, poor feed conversion, diminished body weight gain, and reproductive disorders. In particular, species belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium have been associated with the production of aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes and zearalenone. Exposure of consumers to mycotoxins is mainly via plant foods. However, an additional potential exposure may be via foods of animal origin such as milk, cheese and meat as animals consuming mycotoxin-contaminated feeds can produce foods that contain toxic residues and biotransformation products.
Although the prevention of mycotoxins contamination in the field is the main goal of agriculture and food industries, methods during food processing need to be developed to reduce fungal growth.
Post-harvest strategies aim at lowering fungal contamination and, consequently, the mycotoxin content of agricultural products during storage, handling, processing, and transport. Such strategies include the improvement of drying and storage conditions, the use of chemical and natural agents, and irradiation. Unfortunately, contamination cannot be completely avoided. Therefore, there is an increased focus on effective methods of detoxification for mycotoxins present in food, and on the inhibition of mycotoxin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also possible to prevent the toxic effects once mycotoxin is ingested using feed additives such as antioxidants, sulfur containing amino acids, vitamins and trace elements. A novel strategy to control mycotoxicoses is the application of microorganisms (lactic bacteria; yeasts…) capable to biotransform some mycotoxins into less toxic metabolites. All papers dealing with these objectives are welcome.
Prof. Dr. Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
- lactic bacteria
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Chronic exposure of pigs to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, and the efficacy of two yeast based feed additives
Authors: Sung Woo Kim, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University
Abstract: Effects of moderate levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on growth performance, immunological parameters, oxidative stress, and organ health of pigs were determined. The ability of two yeast additives to reduce the effects of these mycotoxins was also determined. Gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments for 42 days: CON (control without DON or ZEA); MT (4.8 mg/kg DON and 0.3 mg/kg ZEA); MT-A (MT + 2 g/kg of a yeast cell wall product); and MT-B (MT + 2 g/kg of a yeast fermentation product). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were measured, and blood collected to determine immune status and oxidative stress. On day 42, pigs were euthanized to obtain tissue samples. Pigs fed MT had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.01) compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-A tended (P = 0.097) to have greater ADG than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-B had greater ADG (P < 0.05) and tended (P = 0.059) to have greater ADFI. Minimal affects were observed for immune parameters. Oxidative DNA damage tended (P = 0.089) to be increased in MT and MT-A compared with CON and MT-B. Weights of internal organs were not different, however pigs fed MT tended to have greater (P = 0.075) hydrophic degeneration than other treatments. Collectively, feeding diets with 4.8 mg/kg DON and 0.3 mg/kg ZEA reduced ADFI resulting in reduced ADG. The consumption of DON and ZEA did not greatly affect internal systems. Both feed additives showed abilities to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig performance.
Last update: 4 August 2014