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Special Issue "Detoxification of Mycotoxins"

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A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz

National Agronomical High School of Toulouse (ENSAT), Unit of Toxicology & Food safety, 1 avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326, Auzeville-Tolosane, France
E-Mail
Phone: +33534323947
Fax: +33 534 323 947
Interests: mycotoxin; ochratoxin; fumonisin; zearalenone; biomarker; risk evaluation; environmental toxicology; polycyclic aromatic compounds; genotoxicity; DNA adduct; balkan endemic nephropathy; kidney cancer; biotransformation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Contamination of food and agricultural commodities by various types of toxigenic molds is a serious problem. Fungi are naturally present and can contaminate food crop under favorable conditions of temperature, relative humidity, pH, nutrient availability and oxygen. Besides the loss of crop and foodstuffs, the production of mycotoxins represents a big problem, since it has been associated with a wide range of negative effects for human health including carcinogenic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic effects. In animals, mycotoxins decrease performance, cause feed refusal, poor feed conversion, diminished body weight gain, and reproductive disorders. In particular, species belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium have been associated with the production of aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes and zearalenone. Exposure of consumers to mycotoxins is mainly via plant foods. However, an additional potential exposure may be via foods of animal origin such as milk, cheese and meat as animals consuming mycotoxin-contaminated feeds can produce foods that contain toxic residues and biotransformation products.

Although the prevention of mycotoxins contamination in the field is the main goal of agriculture and food industries, methods during food processing need to be developed to reduce fungal growth.

Post-harvest strategies aim at lowering fungal contamination and, consequently, the mycotoxin content of agricultural products during storage, handling, processing, and transport. Such strategies include the improvement of drying and storage conditions, the use of chemical and natural agents, and irradiation. Unfortunately, contamination cannot be completely avoided. Therefore, there is an increased focus on effective methods of detoxification for mycotoxins present in food, and on the inhibition of mycotoxin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also possible to prevent the toxic effects once mycotoxin is ingested using feed additives such as antioxidants, sulfur containing amino acids, vitamins and trace elements. A novel strategy to control mycotoxicoses is the application of microorganisms (lactic bacteria; yeasts…) capable to biotransform some mycotoxins into less toxic metabolites. All papers dealing with these objectives are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • fungi
  • mycotoxins
  • binder
  • pre-harvesting
  • post-harvesting
  • detoxification
  • antioxidant
  • yeast
  • lactic bacteria

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Comparative Investigation of the Efficacy of Three Different Adsorbents against OTA-Induced Toxicity in Broiler Chickens
Toxins 2015, 7(4), 1174-1191; doi:10.3390/toxins7041174
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
PDF Full-text (2660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of three different adsorbents, inorganic (modified zeolite), organic (esterified glucomannans) and mixed (inorganic and organic components, with the addition of enzymes), in protecting broilers from the toxic effects of ochratoxin A in feed.
[...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of three different adsorbents, inorganic (modified zeolite), organic (esterified glucomannans) and mixed (inorganic and organic components, with the addition of enzymes), in protecting broilers from the toxic effects of ochratoxin A in feed. Broilers were fed diets containing 2 mg/kg of ochratoxin A (OTA) and supplemented with adsorbents at the recommended concentration of 2 g/kg for 21 days. The presence of OTA led to a notable reduction in body weight, lower weight gain, increased feed conversion and induced histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. The presence of inorganic, organic and mixed adsorbents in contaminated feed only partially reduced the negative effects of OTA on the broiler performances. Broilers that were fed with adsorbent-supplemented feed reached higher body weight (17.96%, 19.09% and 13.59%), compared to the group that received only OTA. The presence of adsorbents partially alleviated the reduction in feed consumption (22.68%, 12.91% and 10.59%), and a similar effect was observed with feed conversion. The applied adsorbents have also reduced the intensity of histopathological changes caused by OTA; however, they were not able to prevent their onset. After the withdrawal of the toxin and adsorbents from the feed (21–42 days), all previously observed disturbances in broilers were reduced, but more remarkably in broilers fed with adsorbents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content
Toxins 2015, 7(3), 791-811; doi:10.3390/toxins7030791
Received: 10 January 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 February 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested
[...] Read more.
Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Metabolomics of the Bio-Degradation Process of Aflatoxin B1 by Actinomycetes at an Initial pH of 6.0
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 439-456; doi:10.3390/toxins7020439
Received: 17 November 2014 / Revised: 9 January 2015 / Accepted: 23 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC
[...] Read more.
Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, and S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762, in liquid cultures. Biodegradation of AFB1 was optimised under a range of temperatures from 25 to 40 °C and pH values of 4.0 to 8.0. An initial concentration of 20 µg/mL of AFB1 was used in this study. The amount of AFB1 remaining was measured against time by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with UV and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). All species were able to degrade the AFB1, and no significant difference was found between them. AFB1 remained in the liquid culture for R. erythropolis, S. lividans and S. aureofaciens were 0.81 µg/mL, 2.41 µg/mL and 2.78 µg/mL respectively, at the end of the first 24 h. Degradation occurred at all incubation temperatures and the pH with the optimal conditions for R. erythropolis was achieved at 30 °C and pH 6, whereas for S. lividans and S. aureofaciens the optimum conditions for degradation were 30 °C and pH 5. Analysis of the degradative route indicated that each microorganism has a different way of degrading AFB1. The metabolites produced by R. erythropolis were significantly different from the other two microorganisms. Products of degradation were identified through metabolomic studies by utilizing high-resolution mass spectral data. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the degradation of AFB1 was associated with the appearance of a range of lower molecular weight compounds. The pathway of degradation or chemical alteration of AFB1 was followed by means of high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HR-FTMS) analysis as well as through the MS2 fragmentation to unravel the degradative pathway for AFB1. AFB1 bio-degradation was coupled with the accumulation of intermediates of fatty acid metabolism and glycolysis. A plausible mechanism of degradation of AFB1 by Rhodococcus was hypothesized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of 27 Mycotoxin Binders and the Relation with in Vitro Zearalenone Adsorption at a Single Concentration
Toxins 2015, 7(1), 21-33; doi:10.3390/toxins7010021
Received: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 23 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize 27 feed additives marketed as mycotoxin binders and to screen them for their in vitro zearalenone (ZEN) adsorption. Firstly, 27 mycotoxin binders, commercially available in Belgium and The Netherlands, were selected and characterized. Characterization was
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to characterize 27 feed additives marketed as mycotoxin binders and to screen them for their in vitro zearalenone (ZEN) adsorption. Firstly, 27 mycotoxin binders, commercially available in Belgium and The Netherlands, were selected and characterized. Characterization was comprised of X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiling of the mineral content and d-spacing, determination of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the exchangeable base cations, acidity, mineral fraction, relative humidity (RH) and swelling volume. Secondly, an in vitro screening experiment was performed to evaluate the adsorption of a single concentration of ZEN in a ZEN:binder ratio of 1:20,000. The free concentration of ZEN was measured after 4 h of incubation with each of the 27 mycotoxin binders at a pH of 2.5, 6.5 and 8.0. A significant correlation between the free concentration of ZEN and both the d-spacing and mineral fraction of the mycotoxin binders was seen at the three pH levels. A low free concentration of ZEN was demonstrated using binders containing mixed-layered smectites and binders containing humic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor
Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3426-3437; doi:10.3390/toxins6123426
Received: 26 September 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with
[...] Read more.
Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone
Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3336-3353; doi:10.3390/toxins6123336
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON
[...] Read more.
To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1
Toxins 2014, 6(11), 3157-3172; doi:10.3390/toxins6113157
Received: 13 September 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (877 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by a Pseudomonas Strain
Toxins 2014, 6(10), 3028-3040; doi:10.3390/toxins6103028
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg2+, Li+, Zn2+, Se2+, Fe3+ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB1 was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB1. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
Open AccessCommunication Efficacy of Active Carbon towards the Absorption of Deoxynivalenol in Pigs
Toxins 2014, 6(10), 2998-3004; doi:10.3390/toxins6102998
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to assess the in vivo efficacy of mycotoxin binders, specific toxicokinetic parameters should be measured according to European guidelines. For this purpose, an absorption model in pigs is described with emphasis on absorption kinetics. Pigs received a single oral bolus of
[...] Read more.
In order to assess the in vivo efficacy of mycotoxin binders, specific toxicokinetic parameters should be measured according to European guidelines. For this purpose, an absorption model in pigs is described with emphasis on absorption kinetics. Pigs received a single oral bolus of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with active carbon (applied as mycotoxin binder). After administration of deoxynivalenol alone, significant plasma amounts of deoxynivalenol were detected and kinetic parameters were calculated using a one compartmental model. Activated carbon completely prevented the absorption of deoxynivalenol as no plasma amounts could be detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)

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