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Toxins 2010, 2(6), 1225-1249; doi:10.3390/toxins2061225
Review

Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

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Received: 7 May 2010; in revised form: 17 May 2010 / Accepted: 26 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins)
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Abstract: In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat) and biological fluids (blood, urine) is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations.
Keywords: ochratoxin A; Portugal; exposure; food; biomarker; cereal; bread; wine ochratoxin A; Portugal; exposure; food; biomarker; cereal; bread; wine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Duarte, S.C.; Pena, A.; Lino, C.M. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure. Toxins 2010, 2, 1225-1249.

AMA Style

Duarte SC, Pena A, Lino CM. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure. Toxins. 2010; 2(6):1225-1249.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Duarte, Sofia C.; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M. 2010. "Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure." Toxins 2, no. 6: 1225-1249.


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