Next Article in Journal
Venom Proteins of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Recent Discovery of an Untapped Pharmacopee
Next Article in Special Issue
Oncological Outcomes in Rats Given Nephrocarcinogenic Exposure to Dietary Ochratoxin A, Followed by the Tumour Promoter Sodium Barbital for Life: A Pilot Study
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Pilot Study of Nuclear Instability in Archived Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Tumours with Putative Ochratoxin Aetiology
Toxins 2010, 2(4), 461-493; doi:10.3390/toxins2040461
Review

Ochratoxin A: General Overview and Actual Molecular Status

1 and 2,*
Received: 24 January 2010; in revised form: 5 March 2010 / Accepted: 8 March 2010 / Published: 29 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [552 KB, uploaded 29 March 2010]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi that structurally consists of a para-chlorophenolic group containing a dihydroisocoumarin moiety that is amide-linked to L-phenylalanine. OTA is detected worldwide in various food and feed sources. Studies show that this molecule can have several toxicological effects such as nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic. A role in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and its association to urinary tract tumors has been also proved. In this review, we will explore the general aspect of OTA: physico-chemical properties, toxicological profile, OTA producing fungi, contaminated food, regulation, legislation and analytical methods. Due to lack of sufficient information related to the molecular background, this paper will discuss in detail the recent advances in molecular biology of OTA biosynthesis, based on information and on new data about identification and characterization of ochratoxin biosynthetic genes in both Penicillium and Aspergillus species. This review will also cover the development of the molecular methods for the detection and quantification of OTA producing fungi in various foodstuffs.
Keywords: Ochratoxin A; toxicity; polyketide synthase gene; molecular biology; biosynthesis; detection; quantification Ochratoxin A; toxicity; polyketide synthase gene; molecular biology; biosynthesis; detection; quantification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

El Khoury, A.; Atoui, A. Ochratoxin A: General Overview and Actual Molecular Status. Toxins 2010, 2, 461-493.

AMA Style

El Khoury A, Atoui A. Ochratoxin A: General Overview and Actual Molecular Status. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):461-493.

Chicago/Turabian Style

El Khoury, André; Atoui, Ali. 2010. "Ochratoxin A: General Overview and Actual Molecular Status." Toxins 2, no. 4: 461-493.


Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert