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Toxins 2010, 2(4), 758-770; doi:10.3390/toxins2040758
Article

Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Liquorice Products

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Received: 26 February 2010; in revised form: 9 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 20 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins)
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Abstract: The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFs) in liquorice products made in Italy was surveyed. Twenty-eight samples of dried liquorice extract and fifty-four of liquorice confectionery (liquorice content between 2 and 10%) were collected from retail outlets located in northern Italy. After extraction and purification through an immunoaffinity column, OTA and AFs were analysed using both HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS/MS. OTA occurred in all samples of dried liquorice extract and in 61% of samples of liquorice confectionery, showing very high values for the former (mean 89.6 µg kg-1, maximum value 990.1 µg kg-1), and relatively low levels for the latter (mean 0.96 µg kg-1, maximum value 8.3 µg kg-1). The contribution of dried liquorice extract to OTA intake appears to be non-negligible for children, who are potentially high consumers. AF contamination resulted very low: AFB1 was detected only in 15.8% of samples (maximum value 7.7 µg kg-1, mean 0.38 and 0.41 µg kg-1 for dried liquorice extract and liquorice confectionery, respectively); the other AFs were not detected. To our knowledge, it is the first time that AFB1 has been detected in liquorice extract samples.
Keywords: ochratoxin; aflatoxins; liquorice ochratoxin; aflatoxins; liquorice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pietri, A.; Rastelli, S.; Bertuzzi, T. Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Liquorice Products. Toxins 2010, 2, 758-770.

AMA Style

Pietri A, Rastelli S, Bertuzzi T. Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Liquorice Products. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):758-770.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pietri, Amedeo; Rastelli, Silvia; Bertuzzi, Terenzio. 2010. "Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Liquorice Products." Toxins 2, no. 4: 758-770.


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