Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Ochratoxins—Food Contaminants: Impact on Human Health
Previous Article in Journal
Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A
Previous Article in Special Issue
Studies on Carcinogenic and Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Chicks
Toxins 2010, 2(4), 758-770; doi:10.3390/toxins2040758

Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Liquorice Products

* ,  and
Istituto di Scienze degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione, Facoltà di Agraria, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense, 84 I-29100 Piacenza, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2010 / Revised: 9 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 20 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [226 KB, uploaded 20 April 2010]   |   Browse Figures


The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFs) in liquorice products made in Italy was surveyed. Twenty-eight samples of dried liquorice extract and fifty-four of liquorice confectionery (liquorice content between 2 and 10%) were collected from retail outlets located in northern Italy. After extraction and purification through an immunoaffinity column, OTA and AFs were analysed using both HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS/MS. OTA occurred in all samples of dried liquorice extract and in 61% of samples of liquorice confectionery, showing very high values for the former (mean 89.6 µg kg-1, maximum value 990.1 µg kg-1), and relatively low levels for the latter (mean 0.96 µg kg-1, maximum value 8.3 µg kg-1). The contribution of dried liquorice extract to OTA intake appears to be non-negligible for children, who are potentially high consumers. AF contamination resulted very low: AFB1 was detected only in 15.8% of samples (maximum value 7.7 µg kg-1, mean 0.38 and 0.41 µg kg-1 for dried liquorice extract and liquorice confectionery, respectively); the other AFs were not detected. To our knowledge, it is the first time that AFB1 has been detected in liquorice extract samples.
Keywords: ochratoxin; aflatoxins; liquorice ochratoxin; aflatoxins; liquorice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Pietri, A.; Rastelli, S.; Bertuzzi, T. Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Liquorice Products. Toxins 2010, 2, 758-770.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert