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Toxins 2010, 2(5), 1111-1120; doi:10.3390/toxins2051111
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Ochratoxin A Producing Species in the Genus Penicillium

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Received: 16 April 2010 / Revised: 4 May 2010 / Accepted: 11 May 2010 / Published: 14 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins)
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Abstract

Ochratoxin A (OTA) producing fungi are members of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Nowadays, there are about 20 species accepted as OTA producers, which are distributed in three phylogenetically related but distinct groups of aspergilli of the subgenus Circumdati and only in two species of the subgenus Penicillium. At the moment, P. verrucosum and P. nordicum are the only OTA producing species accepted in the genus Penicillium. However, during the last century, OTA producers in this genus were classified as P. viridicatum for many years. At present, only some OTA producing species are known to be a potential source of OTA contamination of cereals and certain common foods and beverages such as bread, beer, coffee, dried fruits, grape juice and wine among others. Penicillium verrucosum is the major producer of OTA in cereals such as wheat and barley in temperate and cold climates. Penicillium verrucosum and P. nordicum can be recovered from some dry-cured meat products and some cheeses.
Keywords: foods; ochratoxin A; Penicillium; taxonomy foods; ochratoxin A; Penicillium; taxonomy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Cabañes, F.J.; Bragulat, M.R.; Castellá, G. Ochratoxin A Producing Species in the Genus Penicillium. Toxins 2010, 2, 1111-1120.

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