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Ochratoxin A in Ruminants–A Review on Its Degradation by Gut Microbes and Effects on Animals
Institute of Animal Science, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 15, 53115 Bonn, Germany
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, 24098 Kiel, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2010; in revised form: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 21 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins
Abstract: Ruminants are much less sensitive to ochratoxin A (OTA) than non-ruminants. The ruminal microbes, with protozoa being a central group, degrade the mycotoxin extensively, with disappearance half lives of 0.6–3.8 h. However, in some studies OTA was detected systemically when using sensitive analytical methods, probably due to some rumen bypass at proportions of estimated 2–6.5% of dosage (maximum 10%). High concentrate proportions and high feeding levels are dietary factors promoting the likeliness of systemic occurrence due to factors like shifts in microbial population and higher contamination potential. Among risk scenarios for ruminants, chronic intoxication represents the most relevant.
Keywords: OTA; mycotoxin; enzymatic degradation; diet; protozoa; carry over; milk
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MDPI and ACS Style
Mobashar, M.; Hummel, J.; Blank, R.; Südekum, K.-H. Ochratoxin A in Ruminants–A Review on Its Degradation by Gut Microbes and Effects on Animals. Toxins 2010, 2, 809-839.
Mobashar M, Hummel J, Blank R, Südekum K-H. Ochratoxin A in Ruminants–A Review on Its Degradation by Gut Microbes and Effects on Animals. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):809-839.
Mobashar, Muhammad; Hummel, Jürgen; Blank, Ralf; Südekum, Karl-Heinz. 2010. "Ochratoxin A in Ruminants–A Review on Its Degradation by Gut Microbes and Effects on Animals." Toxins 2, no. 4: 809-839.