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Toxins 2010, 2(4), 809-839; doi:10.3390/toxins204809
Review

Ochratoxin A in Ruminants–A Review on Its Degradation by Gut Microbes and Effects on Animals

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Received: 9 March 2010; in revised form: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 21 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [364 KB, uploaded 21 April 2010]
Abstract: Ruminants are much less sensitive to ochratoxin A (OTA) than non-ruminants. The ruminal microbes, with protozoa being a central group, degrade the mycotoxin extensively, with disappearance half lives of 0.6–3.8 h. However, in some studies OTA was detected systemically when using sensitive analytical methods, probably due to some rumen bypass at proportions of estimated 2–6.5% of dosage (maximum 10%). High concentrate proportions and high feeding levels are dietary factors promoting the likeliness of systemic occurrence due to factors like shifts in microbial population and higher contamination potential. Among risk scenarios for ruminants, chronic intoxication represents the most relevant.
Keywords: OTA; mycotoxin; enzymatic degradation; diet; protozoa; carry over; milk OTA; mycotoxin; enzymatic degradation; diet; protozoa; carry over; milk
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mobashar, M.; Hummel, J.; Blank, R.; Südekum, K.-H. Ochratoxin A in Ruminants–A Review on Its Degradation by Gut Microbes and Effects on Animals. Toxins 2010, 2, 809-839.

AMA Style

Mobashar M, Hummel J, Blank R, Südekum K-H. Ochratoxin A in Ruminants–A Review on Its Degradation by Gut Microbes and Effects on Animals. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):809-839.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mobashar, Muhammad; Hummel, Jürgen; Blank, Ralf; Südekum, Karl-Heinz. 2010. "Ochratoxin A in Ruminants–A Review on Its Degradation by Gut Microbes and Effects on Animals." Toxins 2, no. 4: 809-839.


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