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Materials, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2013), Pages 5447-5985

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Open AccessArticle Performance Prediction of Differential Fibers with a Bi-Directional Optimization Approach
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5967-5985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125967
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper develops a bi-directional prediction approach to predict the production parameters and performance of differential fibers based on neural networks and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. The proposed method does not require accurate description and calculation for the multiple processes, different modes and
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This paper develops a bi-directional prediction approach to predict the production parameters and performance of differential fibers based on neural networks and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. The proposed method does not require accurate description and calculation for the multiple processes, different modes and complex conditions of fiber production. The bi-directional prediction approach includes the forward prediction and backward reasoning. Particle swam optimization algorithms with K-means algorithm are used to minimize the prediction error of the forward prediction results. Based on the forward prediction, backward reasoning uses the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find the reasoning results. Experiments with polyester filament parameters of differential production conditions indicate that the proposed approach obtains good prediction results. The results can be used to optimize fiber production and to design differential fibers. This study also has important value and widespread application prospects regarding the spinning of differential fiber optimization. Full article
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Open AccessReview Implications of Surface and Bulk Properties of Abutment Implants and Their Degradation in the Health of Periodontal Tissue
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5951-5966; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125951
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the current review was to investigate the implications of the surface and bulk properties of abutment implants and their degradation in relation to periodontal health. The success of dental implants is no longer a challenge for dentistry. The scientific literature
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The aim of the current review was to investigate the implications of the surface and bulk properties of abutment implants and their degradation in relation to periodontal health. The success of dental implants is no longer a challenge for dentistry. The scientific literature presents several types of implants that are specific for each case. However, in cases of prosthetics components, such as abutments, further research is needed to improve the materials used to avoid bacterial adhesion and enhance contact with epithelial cells. The implanted surfaces of the abutments are composed of chemical elements that may degrade under different temperatures or be damaged by the forces applied onto them. This study showed that the resulting release of such chemical elements could cause inflammation in the periodontal tissue. At the same time, the surface characteristics can be altered, thus favoring biofilm development and further increasing the inflammation. Finally, if not treated, this inflammation can cause the loss of the implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Brown Marine Macroalga, Sargassum Muticum Aqueous Extract
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5942-5950; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125942
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a relatively new emerging field of nanotechnology which has economic and eco-friendly benefits over chemical and physical processes of synthesis. In the present work, for the first time, the brown marine algae Sargassum muticum (S. muticum)
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Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a relatively new emerging field of nanotechnology which has economic and eco-friendly benefits over chemical and physical processes of synthesis. In the present work, for the first time, the brown marine algae Sargassum muticum (S. muticum) aqueous extract was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of nanostructure silver particles (Ag-NPs). Structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized systematically by using FTIR, XRD, TEM and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed through the presence of an intense absorption peak at 420 nm using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. A TEM image showed that the particles are spherical in shape with size ranging from 5 to 15 nm. The nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. This was confirmed by the XRD pattern. From the FTIR results, it can be seen that the reduction has mostly been carried out by sulphated polysaccharides present in S. muticum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis and Comparison of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5923-5941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125923
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 19 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e., no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures
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Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e., no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) is a combination in which the FSW is the dominant welding process and the laser pre-heats the weld. In this work FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 6 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in butt joint configuration. LAFSW is studied firstly to demonstrate the weldability of aluminum alloy using that technique. Secondly, process parameters, such as laser power and temperature gradient are investigated in order to evaluate changes in microstructure, micro-hardness, residual stress, and tensile properties. Once the possibility to achieve sound weld using LAFSW is demonstrated, it will be possible to explore the benefits for tool wear, higher welding speeds, and lower clamping force. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle A Sustainable Evaluation of Drilling Parameters for PEEK-GF30
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5907-5922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125907
Received: 29 October 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a study of hole quality and energy consumption in the process of drilling a thermoplastic polymeric material, polyether-ether-ketone, reinforced with 30% glass fibers (PEEK-GF30). PEEK-GF30’s capacity to be machined has focused on turning operations. Studies of drilling involving thermoplastic polymeric
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This paper presents a study of hole quality and energy consumption in the process of drilling a thermoplastic polymeric material, polyether-ether-ketone, reinforced with 30% glass fibers (PEEK-GF30). PEEK-GF30’s capacity to be machined has focused on turning operations. Studies of drilling involving thermoplastic polymeric materials have considered materials with other types of matrices, or reinforcement. In this study, quantities such as maximum and mean surface roughness, delamination, maximum thrust force, maximum momentum, and energy required during the process were determined for three types of drill bits, and the most influential factors for each variable were identified using an ANOVA multifactor analysis. The highest quality and lowest energy consumption were achieved for a drill bit rotation speed of 7000 rpm and a feed rate of 400 mm/min with a tungsten carbide (WC) drill bit coated with titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). Although a WC drill bit with a diamond point reduces delamination, the roughness increases, thus, the choice of the drill bit type depends on the roughness allowed. A WC drill bit coated with TiAlN produces a good surface finish that can eliminate subsequent operations and requires less energy; thus, this type of drill bit is the most attractive of the types evaluated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Self-Assembly and Nanostructures in Organogels Based on a Bolaform Cholesteryl Imide Compound with Conjugated Aromatic Spacer
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5893-5906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125893
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 1 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (740 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The self-assembly of small functional molecules into supramolecular structures is a powerful approach toward the development of new nanoscale materials and devices. As a class of self-assembled materials, low weight molecular organic gelators, organized in special nanoarchitectures through specific non-covalent interactions, has become
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The self-assembly of small functional molecules into supramolecular structures is a powerful approach toward the development of new nanoscale materials and devices. As a class of self-assembled materials, low weight molecular organic gelators, organized in special nanoarchitectures through specific non-covalent interactions, has become one of the hot topics in soft matter research due to their scientific values and many potential applications. Here, a bolaform cholesteryl imide compound with conjugated aromatic spacer was designed and synthesized. The gelation behaviors in 23 solvents were investigated as efficient low-molecular-mass organic gelator. The experimental results indicated that the morphologies and assembly modes of as-formed organogels can be regulated by changing the kinds of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations revealed that the gelator molecule self-assemble into different aggregates, from wrinkle and belt to fiber with the change of solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations between imide groups and assembly modes. Finally, some rational assembly modes in organogels were proposed and discussed. The present work may give some insight to the design and character of new organogelators and soft materials with special structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Process
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5878-5892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125878
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
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Abstract
In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity
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In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE)) and polypropylene (PP) resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Net-shaped PM (Powder Metallurgical) Parts)
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Open AccessArticle Design of Friction Stir Welding Tool for Avoiding Root Flaws
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5870-5877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125870
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to improve material flow behavior during friction stir welding and avoid root flaws of weld, a tool with a half-screw pin and a tool with a tapered-flute pin are suggested. The effect of flute geometry in tool pins on material flow
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In order to improve material flow behavior during friction stir welding and avoid root flaws of weld, a tool with a half-screw pin and a tool with a tapered-flute pin are suggested. The effect of flute geometry in tool pins on material flow velocity is investigated by the software ANSYS FLUENT. Numerical simulation results show that high material flow velocity appears near the rotational tool and material flow velocity rapidly decreases with the increase of distance away from the axis of the tool. Maximum material flow velocity by the tool with the tapered-flute pin appears at the beginning position of flute and the velocity decreases with the increase of flow length in flute. From the view of increasing the flow velocity of material near the bottom of the workpiece or in the middle of workpiece, the tool with the half-screw pin and the tool with the tapered-flute pin are both better than the conventional tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Cytocompatibility of Siloxane-Containing Vaterite/Poly(l-lactic acid) Composite Coatings on Metallic Magnesium
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5857-5869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125857
Received: 25 October 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(l-lactic acid)-based films which include 60 wt % of vaterite (V) or siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV) were coated on a pure magnesium substrate, denoted by PLLA/V or PLLA/SiV, respectively, to suppress early corrosion and improve its cytocompatibility. Both coating films adhered to the Mg
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Poly(l-lactic acid)-based films which include 60 wt % of vaterite (V) or siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV) were coated on a pure magnesium substrate, denoted by PLLA/V or PLLA/SiV, respectively, to suppress early corrosion and improve its cytocompatibility. Both coating films adhered to the Mg substrate with 2.3–2.8 MPa of tensile bonding strength. Soaking test for 7 days in α-modified minimum essential medium revealed that the morphological instability of the PLLA/V film caused a higher amount of Mg2+ ion to be released from the coating sample. On the other hand, in the case of the coating with the PLLA/SiV film, no morphological change even after the soaking test was observed, owing to the suppression of the degradation rate. In cell culture tests, the proliferation of mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1) was significantly enhanced by both coatings, in comparison with the uncoated magnesium substrate. The cell morphology revealed that a few less-spread cells were observed on the PLLA/V film, while more elongated cells were done on the PLLA/SiV film. The cells on the PLLA/SiV film exhibited an extremely higher alkaline phosphatase activity after 21 days of incubation than that on the PLLA/V one. The PLLA/SiV film suppressed the early corrosion and enhanced cytocompatibility on metallic magnesium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)
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Open AccessReview Recent Progress in Advanced Nanobiological Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5821-5856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125821
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, we briefly introduce our efforts to reconstruct cellular life processes by mimicking natural systems and the applications of these systems to energy and environmental problems. Functional units of in vitro cellular life processes are based on the fabrication of artificial
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In this review, we briefly introduce our efforts to reconstruct cellular life processes by mimicking natural systems and the applications of these systems to energy and environmental problems. Functional units of in vitro cellular life processes are based on the fabrication of artificial organelles using protein-incorporated polymersomes and the creation of bioreactors. This concept of an artificial organelle originates from the first synthesis of poly(siloxane)-poly(alkyloxazoline) block copolymers three decades ago and the first demonstration of protein activity in the polymer membrane a decade ago. The increased value of biomimetic polymers results from many research efforts to find new applications such as functionally active membranes and a biochemical-producing polymersome. At the same time, foam research has advanced to the point that biomolecules can be efficiently produced in the aqueous channels of foam. Ongoing research includes replication of complex biological processes, such as an artificial Calvin cycle for application in biofuel and specialty chemical production, and carbon dioxide sequestration. We believe that the development of optimally designed biomimetic polymers and stable/biocompatible bioreactors would contribute to the realization of the benefits of biomimetic systems. Thus, this paper seeks to review previous research efforts, examine current knowledge/key technical parameters, and identify technical challenges ahead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles 2013)
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Open AccessReview Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5796-5820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125796
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx) play an important role as the
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Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx) play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n-type- and p-type-like MeOx interface materials consisting of binary compounds AxBy. Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL) and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL) in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Materials 2013)
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Open AccessReview Semiconductor Nanomaterials-Based Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Proteome Analysis
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5763-5795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125763
Received: 24 July 2013 / Revised: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 9 December 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) or nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit very unusual physico-chemcial and optical properties. This review article introduces the applications of semiconductor nanomaterials (NMs) in fluorescence spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for biomolecule analysis. Due to their unique physico-chemical and
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Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) or nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit very unusual physico-chemcial and optical properties. This review article introduces the applications of semiconductor nanomaterials (NMs) in fluorescence spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for biomolecule analysis. Due to their unique physico-chemical and optical properties, semiconductors NMs have created many new platforms for investigating biomolecular structures and information in modern biology. These semiconductor NMs served as effective fluorescent probes for sensing proteins and cells and acted as affinity or concentrating probes for enriching peptides, proteins and bacteria proteins prior to MALDI-MS analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessReview Recent Progress in Ferrocene-Modified Thin Films and Nanoparticles for Biosensors
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5742-5762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125742
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reviews recent progress in the development of ferrocene (Fc)-modified thin films and nanoparticles in relation to their biosensor applications. Redox-active materials in enzyme biosensors commonly use Fc derivatives, which mediate electron transfer between the electrode and enzyme active site. Either voltammetric
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This article reviews recent progress in the development of ferrocene (Fc)-modified thin films and nanoparticles in relation to their biosensor applications. Redox-active materials in enzyme biosensors commonly use Fc derivatives, which mediate electron transfer between the electrode and enzyme active site. Either voltammetric or amperometric signals originating from redox reactions of Fc are detected or modulated by the binding of analytes on the electrode. Fc-modified thin films have been prepared by a variety of protocols, including in situ polymerization, layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition, host-guest complexation and molecular recognitions. In situ polymerization provides a facile way to form Fc thin films, because the Fc polymers are directly deposited onto the electrode surface. LbL deposition, which can modulate the film thickness and Fc content, is suitable for preparing well-organized thin films. Other techniques, such as host-guest complexation and protein-based molecular recognition, are useful for preparing Fc thin films. Fc-modified Au nanoparticles have been widely used as redox-active materials to fabricate electrochemical biosensors. Fc derivatives are often attached to Au nanoparticles through a thiol-Au linkage. Nanoparticles consisting of inorganic porous materials, such as zeolites and iron oxide, and nanoparticle-based composite materials have also been used to prepare Fc-modified nanoparticles. To construct biosensors, Fc-modified nanoparticles are immobilized on the electrode surface together with enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Proteins for Bio-Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Conductive Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode: A microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Voltammetric Study
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5726-5741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125726
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building on diamond characteristics such as hardness, chemical inertness and low electron emission threshold voltage, the current microscopic, spectroscopic and voltammetric investigations are directed towards improving the properties of electrode coating materials for their future use in clinical studies of deep brain stimulation
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Building on diamond characteristics such as hardness, chemical inertness and low electron emission threshold voltage, the current microscopic, spectroscopic and voltammetric investigations are directed towards improving the properties of electrode coating materials for their future use in clinical studies of deep brain stimulation via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). In this study we combine the capabilities of confocal Raman mapping in providing detailed and accurate analysis of local distributions of material constituents in a series of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films grown by chemical vapor deposition, with information from the more conventional techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Although SEM images show a uniform distribution of film crystallites, they have the limitation of being unable to differentiate the distribution of boron in the diamond. Values of 1018–1021 atoms/cm3 of boron content have been estimated from the absorption coefficient of the 1290 cm−1 infrared absorption band and from the 500 cm−1 Raman vibration. The observed accumulation of boron atoms and carbon sp2 impurities at the grain boundaries suggests that very high doping levels do not necessarily contribute to improvement of the material’s conductivity, corroborating with voltammetric data. FSCV results also indicate an enhanced stability of analyte detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Proteins for Bio-Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Performance of Grouting Materials for Saturated Riprap
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5713-5725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6125713
Received: 22 October 2013 / Revised: 1 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low
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In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low viscosities. A number of grout tests were performed in a model acrylic chamber, 0.4 m in diameter and 2.0 m in length, for visual observation of injection. To reproduce the field flow condition of the saturated riprap layers (approach flow), the grout tests were carried out at 0 cm/s and 100 cm/s for the flow speed and 10 L/min for the grout injection speed after installing a flow injection opening on the lower part of the chamber. Based on the results of the grout tests, the injection of each grout in the saturated riprap layers was examined to find out the most effective grout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Materials)
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