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Special Issue "Biocompatibility of Materials 2013"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Heather Sheardown

Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Room JHE-124A, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ophthalmic biomaterials; ophthalmic drug delivery; polymers; surface modification; protein adsorption; cell material interactions; hydrogels; contact lenses; intraocular lenses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The biocompatibility testing of materials used in medical devices is a fundamental requirement in the acceptance of novel materials in regenerative medicine. Our understanding of the term “biocompatibility” has changed over the last few decades. However, the study of the biocompatibility is more pertinent today, than ever before. The development of tissue engineered scaffolds, bio-responsive and bioactive materials, nanomaterials, stem cell therapy and chemical
functionalisation of material surfaces all present new challenges. Advances in imaging, molecular and cell biology and the development of new materials present new scientific and engineering opportunities in this important field. This issue will bring together basic science, novel materials, imaging, quantititative methodologies as well as the examining the importance of biocompatibility in translating new biomaterials into the clinic.

Prof. Dr. Heather Sheardown
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • cell culture
  • medical devices
  • tissue engineering
  • imaging

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Increased Adipogenic and Decreased Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells on Nanowire Surfaces
Materials 2014, 7(4), 2605-2630; doi:10.3390/ma7042605
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 28 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite many advances in tissue engineering, there are still significant challenges associated with restructuring, repairing, or replacing damaged tissue in the body. Currently, a major obstacle has been trying to develop a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering that provides the correct mechanical properties
[...] Read more.
Despite many advances in tissue engineering, there are still significant challenges associated with restructuring, repairing, or replacing damaged tissue in the body. Currently, a major obstacle has been trying to develop a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering that provides the correct mechanical properties to endure the loads associated with articular joints as well as promote cell-scaffold interactions to aid in extracellular matrix deposition. In addition, adipogenic tissue engineering is widely growing due to an increased need for more innovative reconstructive therapies following adipose tissue traumas and cosmetic surgeries. Recently, lipoaspirate tissue has been identified as a viable alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells because it contains a supportive stroma that can easily be isolated. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can differentiate into a variety of mesodermal lineages including the adipogenic and chondrogenic phenotypes. Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds have been shown to be a promising alternative and stem cells have been widely used to evaluate the compatibility, viability, and bioactivity of these materials. Polycaprolactone is a bioresorbable polymer, which has been widely used for biomedical and tissue engineering applications. The fundamental concept behind successful synthetic tissue-engineered scaffolds is to promote progenitor cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, and induce differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, and finally integration with host tissue. In this study, we investigated the adhesion, proliferation, and chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs on nanowire surfaces. A solvent-free gravimetric template technique was used to fabricate polycaprolactone nanowires surfaces. The results indicated that during the growth period i.e., initial 7 days of culture, the nanowire surfaces (NW) supported adhesion and proliferation of the cells that had elongated morphologies. However, cell on surfaces without nanowires had non-elongated morphologies. Further, immunofluorescence imaging of marker proteins showed that the nanowires surfaces did not appear to support chondrogenic differentiation whereas supported adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)
Open AccessArticle In vitro and in vivo Biocompatibility of Alginate Dialdehyde/Gelatin Hydrogels with and without Nanoscaled Bioactive Glass for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1957-1974; doi:10.3390/ma7031957
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 9 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to good mechanical properties needed for three-dimensional tissue engineering, the combination of alginate dialdehyde, gelatin and nano-scaled bioactive glass (45S5) is supposed to combine excellent cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation properties, good biocompatibility and predictable degradation rates. The goal of this
[...] Read more.
In addition to good mechanical properties needed for three-dimensional tissue engineering, the combination of alginate dialdehyde, gelatin and nano-scaled bioactive glass (45S5) is supposed to combine excellent cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation properties, good biocompatibility and predictable degradation rates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility as a first step on the way to its use as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering. In vitro evaluation showed good cell adherence and proliferation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on covalently crosslinked alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL) hydrogel films with and without 0.1% nano-Bioglass® (nBG). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)- and mitochondrial activity significantly increased in both ADA-GEL and ADA-GEL-nBG groups compared to alginate. However, addition of 0.1% nBG seemed to have slight cytotoxic effect compared to ADA-GEL. In vivo implantation did not produce a significant inflammatory reaction, and ongoing degradation could be seen after four weeks. Ongoing vascularization was detected after four weeks. The good biocompatibility encourages future studies using ADA-GEL and nBG for bone tissue engineering application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)
Open AccessArticle Gelatin-Based Hydrogels Promote Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1342-1359; doi:10.3390/ma7021342
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support
[...] Read more.
Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Gelatin-based hydrogels are biodegradable, show high biocompatibility, and offer possibilities to introduce functional groups and/or ligands. In order to prove their chondrogenesis-supporting potential, a hydrogel film was developed and compared with standard cell culture polystyrene regarding the differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cellular basis for this study were human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which exhibit differentiation potential along the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage. The results obtained show a promotive effect of gelatin-based hydrogels on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and therefore encourage subsequent in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Exogenous Zinc Concentration on the Responsiveness of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts to Surface Microtopography: Part II (Differentiation)
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1097-1112; doi:10.3390/ma7021097
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 11 February 2014
PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osseointegration of bone implants is a vital part of the recovery process. Numerous studies have shown that micropatterned geometries can promote cell-substrate associations and strengthen the bond between tissue and the implanted material. As demonstrated previously, exogenous zinc levels can influence the responsiveness
[...] Read more.
Osseointegration of bone implants is a vital part of the recovery process. Numerous studies have shown that micropatterned geometries can promote cell-substrate associations and strengthen the bond between tissue and the implanted material. As demonstrated previously, exogenous zinc levels can influence the responsiveness of pre-osteoblasts to micropatterns and modify their migratory behavior. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of exogenous zinc on differentiation of osteoblasts cultured on micropatterned vs. planar substrates. Levels of activated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), as well as early stage differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase, were altered with the addition of zinc. These results suggest that exogenous zinc concentration and micropatterning may interdependently modulate osteoblast differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)
Open AccessArticle In situ Surface Tailoring with Zwitterionic Carboxybetaine Moieties on Self-Assembled Thin Film for Antifouling Biointerfaces
Materials 2014, 7(1), 130-142; doi:10.3390/ma7010130
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel biointerface bearing zwitterionic carboxybetaine moieties was developed for effective resistance to nonspecific adsorption of proteins and blood cells. Self-assembled thin films (SAFs) of (N,N-dimethylaminopropyl) trimethoxysilane were formed as mattress layers by either vapor or solution deposition. Subsequently,
[...] Read more.
A novel biointerface bearing zwitterionic carboxybetaine moieties was developed for effective resistance to nonspecific adsorption of proteins and blood cells. Self-assembled thin films (SAFs) of (N,N-dimethylaminopropyl) trimethoxysilane were formed as mattress layers by either vapor or solution deposition. Subsequently, the tertiary amine head groups on SAFs were reacted with β-propiolactone to give zwitterionic carboxybetaine moieties via in situ synthesis. The optimal reaction time of 8 h for both preparation methods was verified by static contact angle measurements. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, 67.3% of amine groups on SAFs prepared from the vapor deposition was converted to the zwitterionic structures after reaction of β-propiolactone. The antifouling properties of the zwitterionic biointerfaces were quantitatively evaluated in the presence of protein solutions using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, showing a great improvement by factors of 6.5 and 20.2 from tertiary amine SAFs and bare SiO2 surfaces, respectively. More importantly, the zwitterionic SAFs were brought to contact with undiluted human blood in chaotic-mixer microfluidic systems; the results present their capability to effectively repel blood cell adhesion. Accordingly, in this work, development of carboxybetaine SAFs offers a facile yet effective strategy to fabricate biocompatible biointerfaces for a variety of potential applications in surface coatings for medical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity Test of One-Step Self-Etching Bonding Agents by Standardized Dentin Barrier Test Using Polyurethane Discs
Materials 2014, 7(1), 85-96; doi:10.3390/ma7010085
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 23 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was performed to standardize a dentin barrier test with the substitute and evaluate the cytotoxicity of one-step self-etching bonding agents. Each of the natural bovine dentin and polyurethane discs were 500-μm thick and were tested using a perfusion device. Following the
[...] Read more.
This study was performed to standardize a dentin barrier test with the substitute and evaluate the cytotoxicity of one-step self-etching bonding agents. Each of the natural bovine dentin and polyurethane discs were 500-μm thick and were tested using a perfusion device. Following the treatment with 0.05% phenol on the natural bovine disc or three kinds of polyurethane discs—30, 40, and 50 pcf (pounds per cubic foot)—cell viability of L-929 was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and expressed as percentages of non-treated group, respectively. A substitute showing permeability similar to that of bovine dentin was determined based on this result. Cytotoxicity test of bonding agents was performed by the selected substitute, the results of which were expressed as percentages of the control. In addition, SEM images were taken after the tests. The cell viability by 40-pcf polyurethane disc was not statistically different from that by bovine dentin disc (P > 0.05). Futurabond DC resulted in the highest cell viability and Bond force the lowest by the 40-pcf polyurethane disc (P < 0.05). The adhesives on the 40-pcf polyurethane disc changed cellular morphology with different degrees on the SEM images. This standardized test might be useful for assessing the cytotoxicity of dental materials applied to dentin before clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Exogenous Zinc Concentration on the Responsiveness of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts to Surface Microtopography: Part I (Migration)
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5517-5532; doi:10.3390/ma6125517
Received: 21 October 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 21 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Initial cell-surface interactions are guided by the material properties of substrate topography. To examine if these interactions are also modulated by the presence of zinc, we seeded murine pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1, subclone 4) on micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) containing wide (20 µm width, 30 µm
[...] Read more.
Initial cell-surface interactions are guided by the material properties of substrate topography. To examine if these interactions are also modulated by the presence of zinc, we seeded murine pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1, subclone 4) on micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) containing wide (20 µm width, 30 µm pitch, 2 µm height) or narrow (2 µm width, 10 µm pitch, 2 µm height) ridges, with flat PDMS and tissue culture polystyrene (TC) as controls. Zinc concentration was adjusted to mimic deficient (0.23 µM), serum-level (3.6 µM), and zinc-rich (50 µM) conditions. Significant differences were observed in regard to cell morphology, motility, and contact guidance. We found that cells exhibited distinct anisotropic migration on the wide PDMS patterns under either zinc-deprived (0.23 µM) or serum-level zinc conditions (3.6 µM). However, this effect was absent in a zinc-rich environment (50 µM). These results suggest that the contact guidance of pre-osteoblasts may be partly influenced by trace metals in the microenvironment of the extracellular matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Gelatin-Based Materials in Ocular Tissue Engineering
Materials 2014, 7(4), 3106-3135; doi:10.3390/ma7043106
Received: 4 February 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gelatin has been used for many years in pharmaceutical formulation, cell culture and tissue engineering on account of its excellent biocompatibility, ease of processing and availability at low cost. Over the last decade gelatin has been extensively evaluated for numerous ocular applications serving
[...] Read more.
Gelatin has been used for many years in pharmaceutical formulation, cell culture and tissue engineering on account of its excellent biocompatibility, ease of processing and availability at low cost. Over the last decade gelatin has been extensively evaluated for numerous ocular applications serving as cell-sheet carriers, bio-adhesives and bio-artificial grafts. These different applications naturally have diverse physical, chemical and biological requirements and this has prompted research into the modification of gelatin and its derivatives. The crosslinking of gelatin alone or in combination with natural or synthetic biopolymers has produced a variety of scaffolds that could be suitable for ocular applications. This review focuses on methods to crosslink gelatin-based materials and how the resulting materials have been applied in ocular tissue engineering. Critical discussion of recent innovations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine will highlight future opportunities for gelatin-based materials in ophthalmology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)

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