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Development of Conductive Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode: A microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Voltammetric Study
Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2013; in revised form: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Abstract: Building on diamond characteristics such as hardness, chemical inertness and low electron emission threshold voltage, the current microscopic, spectroscopic and voltammetric investigations are directed towards improving the properties of electrode coating materials for their future use in clinical studies of deep brain stimulation via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). In this study we combine the capabilities of confocal Raman mapping in providing detailed and accurate analysis of local distributions of material constituents in a series of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films grown by chemical vapor deposition, with information from the more conventional techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Although SEM images show a uniform distribution of film crystallites, they have the limitation of being unable to differentiate the distribution of boron in the diamond. Values of 1018–1021 atoms/cm3 of boron content have been estimated from the absorption coefficient of the 1290 cm−1 infrared absorption band and from the 500 cm−1 Raman vibration. The observed accumulation of boron atoms and carbon sp2 impurities at the grain boundaries suggests that very high doping levels do not necessarily contribute to improvement of the material’s conductivity, corroborating with voltammetric data. FSCV results also indicate an enhanced stability of analyte detection.
Keywords: confocal Raman microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; infrared absorption spectroscopy; fast-scan cyclic voltammetry; boron-doped diamond
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Bennet, K.E.; Lee, K.H.; Kruchowski, J.N.; Chang, S.-Y.; Marsh, M.P.; Van Orsow, A.A.; Paez, A.; Manciu, F.S. Development of Conductive Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode: A microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Voltammetric Study. Materials 2013, 6, 5726-5741.
Bennet KE, Lee KH, Kruchowski JN, Chang S-Y, Marsh MP, Van Orsow AA, Paez A, Manciu FS. Development of Conductive Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode: A microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Voltammetric Study. Materials. 2013; 6(12):5726-5741.
Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Kruchowski, James N.; Chang, Su-Youne; Marsh, Michael P.; Van Orsow, Alexander A.; Paez, Aurelio; Manciu, Felicia S. 2013. "Development of Conductive Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode: A microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Voltammetric Study." Materials 6, no. 12: 5726-5741.