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Special Issue "Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Geminiano Mancusi (Website)

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Giovanni P. II street, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
Fax: +39 081 36069746
Interests: constitutive behavior of innovative materials; mechanical modeling of composite structures; creep behavior of composites; bucking analysis; structural bonding; periodic materials; FE code development for structural problems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When dealing with advanced composite materials, relevant questions arise which concern the experimental as well as theoretical prediction of their constitutive properties, strongly affected by numerous factors related to the inner components (resins or matrices in general, fibers or particles which are embedded as a reinforcement, fillers,…). Due to a complex interplay between them, the evaluation of their performance both in a short and long term perspective still conflicts with many difficulties.

Multi-scale approaches are in general introduced within innovative investigation strategies, while non-standard testing protocols have to be identified in order to assess in a more suitable manner the experimental response of the composite materials, including the stress-strain relationships, the creep behavior, the bonding behavior, the heat transfer phenomena, the phase changes due to severe thermal exposure conditions, the durability.

In this special issue, advanced contributions which focus on the constitutive behavior of the composite materials are welcome.

Dr. Geminiano Mancusi
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Level-Set Based Representative Volume Element Generator and XFEM Simulations for Textile and 3D-Reinforced Composites
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5568-5592; doi:10.3390/ma6125568
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This contribution presents a new framework for the computational homogenization of the mechanical properties of textile reinforced composites. A critical point in such computational procedures is the definition and discretization of realistic representative volume elements (RVEs). A geometrically-based weave generator has been [...] Read more.
This contribution presents a new framework for the computational homogenization of the mechanical properties of textile reinforced composites. A critical point in such computational procedures is the definition and discretization of realistic representative volume elements (RVEs). A geometrically-based weave generator has been developed to produce realistic geometrical configurations of the reinforcing textile. This generator takes into account the contact conditions between the yarns in the reinforcement by means of an iterative scheme, accommodating the tension in the yarns in an implicit manner. The shape of the cross sections of the yarns can also be adapted as a function of the contact conditions using a level set-based post-processor. This allows a seamless transition towards an extended finite element (XFE) scheme, in which the obtained reinforcement geometry is subsequently exploited to derive the mechanical properties of the composite system using computational homogenization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches
Materials 2013, 6(10), 4847-4867; doi:10.3390/ma6104847
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear [...] Read more.
Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%–1.5%, in terms of shear performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)
Open AccessArticle Structural Response of Polyethylene Foam-Based Sandwich Panels Subjected to Edgewise Compression
Materials 2013, 6(10), 4545-4564; doi:10.3390/ma6104545
Received: 26 July 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzes the mechanical behavior of low density polyethylene foam core sandwich panels subjected to edgewise compression. In order to monitor panel response to buckling, strains generated in the facesheets and overall out-of-plane deformations are measured with strain gages and projection [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the mechanical behavior of low density polyethylene foam core sandwich panels subjected to edgewise compression. In order to monitor panel response to buckling, strains generated in the facesheets and overall out-of-plane deformations are measured with strain gages and projection moiré, respectively. A finite element (FE) model simulating the experimental test is developed. Numerical results are compared with moiré measurements. After having been validated against experimental evidence, the FE model is parameterized, and a trade study is carried out to investigate to what extent the structural response of the panel depends on the sandwich wall construction and facesheet/core interface defects. The projection moiré set-up utilized in this research is able to capture the sudden and very localized buckling phenomena occurring under edgewise compression of foam-based sandwich panels. Results of parametric FE analyses indicate that, if the total thickness of the sandwich wall is fixed, including thicker facesheets in the laminate yields a larger deflection of the panel that becomes more sensitive to buckling. Furthermore, the mechanical response of the foam sandwich panel is found to be rather insensitive to the level of waviness of core-facesheet interfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)
Open AccessArticle Unified Formulation for a Triaxial Elastoplastic Constitutive Law for Concrete
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4226-4248; doi:10.3390/ma6094226
Received: 14 June 2013 / Revised: 22 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A constitutive model to describe the triaxial load-response spectrum of plain concrete in both tension and shear was developed. The inelastic phenomena are described using the plastic flow with direction determined by the gradient of the plastic potential. A new plastic potential [...] Read more.
A constitutive model to describe the triaxial load-response spectrum of plain concrete in both tension and shear was developed. The inelastic phenomena are described using the plastic flow with direction determined by the gradient of the plastic potential. A new plastic potential is introduced and experimentally fitted to ensure better estimate of the load direction. This approach allows to control the inelastic dilatancy in terms of the inelastic deformation of the material. By overlaying the plastic potential on modified Etse and Willam’s yield surface (both defined on the Haigh–Westergaard coordinates), the results showed that the two curves do not undergo similar stress states for a given strength level. It is, therefore, necessary that each surface goes through the current stress state to ensure adequate evaluation of normal vectors. A closed-form solution to accurately predict the triaxial stress state in concrete has been proposed. The predictive capabilities of the proposed model are evaluated by comparing predicted and measured stresses. The proposed model is shown to be accurate in predicting stress state of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)
Open AccessArticle High Density Polyethylene Composites Reinforced with Hybrid Inorganic Fillers: Morphology, Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4122-4138; doi:10.3390/ma6094122
Received: 26 May 2013 / Revised: 5 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of individual and combined talc and glass fibers (GFs) on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was studied. Several published models were adapted to fit the measured tensile modulus and strength of various [...] Read more.
The effect of individual and combined talc and glass fibers (GFs) on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was studied. Several published models were adapted to fit the measured tensile modulus and strength of various composite systems. It was shown that the use of silane-modified GFs had a much larger effect in improving mechanical properties and in reducing linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) values of filled composites, compared with the use of un-modified talc particles due to enhanced bonding to the matrix, larger aspect ratio, and fiber alignment for GFs. Mechanical properties and LCTE values of composites with combined talc and GF fillers varied with talc and GF ratio at a given total filler loading level. The use of a larger portion of GFs in the mix can lead to better composite performance, while the use of talc can help lower the composite costs and increase its recyclability. The use of 30 wt % combined filler seems necessary to control LCTE values of filled HDPE in the data value range generally reported for commercial wood plastic composites. Tensile modulus for talc-filled composite can be predicted with rule of mixture, while a PPA-based model can be used to predict the modulus and strength of GF-filled composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)
Open AccessArticle Constitutive Behavior and Finite Element Analysis of FRP Composite and Concrete Members
Materials 2013, 6(9), 3978-3988; doi:10.3390/ma6093978
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study concerns compressive and flexural constitutive models incorporated into an isoparametric beam finite element scheme for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and concrete composites, using their multi-axial constitutive behavior. The constitutive behavior of concrete was treated in triaxial stress states as [...] Read more.
The present study concerns compressive and flexural constitutive models incorporated into an isoparametric beam finite element scheme for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and concrete composites, using their multi-axial constitutive behavior. The constitutive behavior of concrete was treated in triaxial stress states as an orthotropic hypoelasticity-based formulation to determine the confinement effect of concrete from a three-dimensional failure surface in triaxial stress states. The constitutive behavior of the FRP composite was formulated from the two-dimensional classical lamination theory. To predict the flexural behavior of circular cross-section with FRP sheet and concrete composite, a layered discretization of cross-sections was incorporated into nonlinear isoparametric beam finite elements. The predicted constitutive behavior was validated by a comparison to available experimental results in the compressive and flexural beam loading test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)
Open AccessArticle Polymeric Materials Reinforced with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes: A Constitutive Material Model
Materials 2013, 6(7), 2873-2891; doi:10.3390/ma6072873
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we have modified an existing material model introduced by Cantournet and co-workers to take into account softening and residual strain effects observed in polymeric materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes when subjected to loading and unloading cycles. In order to [...] Read more.
In this paper we have modified an existing material model introduced by Cantournet and co-workers to take into account softening and residual strain effects observed in polymeric materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes when subjected to loading and unloading cycles. In order to assess the accuracy of the modified material model, we have compared theoretical predictions with uniaxial extension experimental data obtained from reinforced polymeric material samples. It is shown that the proposed model follows experimental data well as its maximum errors attained are lower than 2.67%, 3.66%, 7.11% and 6.20% for brominated isobutylene and paramethylstyrene copolymer reinforced with multiwall carbon nanotubes (BIMSM-MWCNT), reinforced natural rubber (NR-MWCNT), polybutadiene-carbon black (PB-CB), and PC/ABS reinforced with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)

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