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Recent Progress in Ferrocene-Modified Thin Films and Nanoparticles for Biosensors
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2013; in revised form: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Abstract: This article reviews recent progress in the development of ferrocene (Fc)-modified thin films and nanoparticles in relation to their biosensor applications. Redox-active materials in enzyme biosensors commonly use Fc derivatives, which mediate electron transfer between the electrode and enzyme active site. Either voltammetric or amperometric signals originating from redox reactions of Fc are detected or modulated by the binding of analytes on the electrode. Fc-modified thin films have been prepared by a variety of protocols, including in situ polymerization, layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition, host-guest complexation and molecular recognitions. In situ polymerization provides a facile way to form Fc thin films, because the Fc polymers are directly deposited onto the electrode surface. LbL deposition, which can modulate the film thickness and Fc content, is suitable for preparing well-organized thin films. Other techniques, such as host-guest complexation and protein-based molecular recognition, are useful for preparing Fc thin films. Fc-modified Au nanoparticles have been widely used as redox-active materials to fabricate electrochemical biosensors. Fc derivatives are often attached to Au nanoparticles through a thiol-Au linkage. Nanoparticles consisting of inorganic porous materials, such as zeolites and iron oxide, and nanoparticle-based composite materials have also been used to prepare Fc-modified nanoparticles. To construct biosensors, Fc-modified nanoparticles are immobilized on the electrode surface together with enzymes.
Keywords: ferrocene; biosensor; electron-transfer mediator; thin film; electro-polymerization; layer-by-layer deposition; Au nanoparticle
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Takahashi, S.; Anzai, J.-I. Recent Progress in Ferrocene-Modified Thin Films and Nanoparticles for Biosensors. Materials 2013, 6, 5742-5762.
Takahashi S, Anzai J-I. Recent Progress in Ferrocene-Modified Thin Films and Nanoparticles for Biosensors. Materials. 2013; 6(12):5742-5762.
Takahashi, Shigehiro; Anzai, Jun-ichi. 2013. "Recent Progress in Ferrocene-Modified Thin Films and Nanoparticles for Biosensors." Materials 6, no. 12: 5742-5762.