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Special Issue "Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jordi Sort (Website)

Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Phone: +34 93 581 2085
Fax: +34 93 581 2155
Interests: porous and continuous films; lithographed systems; amorphous alloys; nanocomposites; nanomagnetism; nanomechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Please accept this invitation to submit a manuscript for the Special Issue in the journal Materials entitled "Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013". This Special Issue focuses on the recent developments in the design, synthesis and characterization of novel b-phase type Ti-based alloys, Ti-based metallic glasses and nanocomposites, as well as porous Ti-based alloys. Papers dealing with the mechanical behavior of these materials (in static and dynamic regimes), their electrochemical corrosion properties, cytotoxicity aspects and in-vitro and in-vivo biocompatibility tests are welcome. Novel synthetic approaches and advanced surface treatments to enhance biofunctionality and bioactivity of these materials fall also within the scope of this Issue. The Special Issue will be a unique opportunity to show the latest results in fundamental and applied research in the field of Ti-based materials and their biomedical applications. It also aims to promote exchange of ideas and enhance knowledge between different scientific communities, including Physicists, Chemists, Biologists and Materials Science Engineers.

Prof. Dr. Jordi Sort
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • novel b-phase Ti-based alloys
  • Ti-based metallic glasses and composites
  • porous Ti-based alloys
  • biomechanical behavior (static and dynamic)
  • in-vitro and in-vivio biocompatibility
  • electrochemical corrosion
  • cytotoxicity and cell proliferation
  • biofunctional and bioactive surfaces

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle In Vitro Cytotoxicity of a Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta Alloy Doped with Different Oxygen Contents
Materials 2014, 7(3), 2183-2193; doi:10.3390/ma7032183
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Abstract
Cp-Ti is the most common material used for dental implants, but its elastic modulus is around five times higher than that of bone. Recently, promising alloys that add Nb, Ta, Zr and Mo to Ti have been developed. The mechanical properties of [...] Read more.
Cp-Ti is the most common material used for dental implants, but its elastic modulus is around five times higher than that of bone. Recently, promising alloys that add Nb, Ta, Zr and Mo to Ti have been developed. The mechanical properties of these alloys are directly related to its microstructure and the presence of interstitial elements, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta (TNZT) alloys was analyzed in the as-received condition and after being doped with several small quantities of oxygen on a cultured osteogenic cell. The cell’s morphology was also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TNZT alloy presented no cytotoxic effects on osteoblastic cells in the studied conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessArticle Osteoblasts Interaction with PLGA Membranes Functionalized with Titanium Film Nanolayer by PECVD. In vitro Assessment of Surface Influence on Cell Adhesion during Initial Cell to Material Interaction
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1687-1708; doi:10.3390/ma7031687
Received: 29 October 2013 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New biomaterials for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), both resorbable and non-resorbable, are being developed to stimulate bone tissue formation. Thus, the in vitro study of cell behavior towards material surface properties turns a prerequisite to assess both biocompatibility and bioactivity of any [...] Read more.
New biomaterials for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), both resorbable and non-resorbable, are being developed to stimulate bone tissue formation. Thus, the in vitro study of cell behavior towards material surface properties turns a prerequisite to assess both biocompatibility and bioactivity of any material intended to be used for clinical purposes. For this purpose, we have developed in vitro studies on normal human osteoblasts (HOB®) HOB® osteoblasts grown on a resorbable Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membrane foil functionalized by a very thin film (around 15 nm) of TiO2 (i.e., TiO2/PLGA membranes), designed to be used as barrier membrane. To avoid any alteration of the membranes, the titanium films were deposited at room temperature in one step by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Characterization of the functionalized membranes proved that the thin titanium layer completely covers the PLGA foils that remains practically unmodified in their interior after the deposition process and stands the standard sterilization protocols. Both morphological changes and cytoskeletal reorganization, together with the focal adhesion development observed in HOB osteoblasts, significantly related to TiO2 treated PLGA in which the Ti deposition method described has revealed to be a valuable tool to increase bioactivity of PLGA membranes, by combining cell nanotopography cues with the incorporation of bioactive factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
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Open AccessArticle In vitro Endothelialization and Platelet Adhesion on Titaniferous Upgraded Polyether and Polycarbonate Polyurethanes
Materials 2014, 7(2), 623-636; doi:10.3390/ma7020623
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 19 January 2014 / Published: 24 January 2014
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Abstract
Polycarbonateurethanes (PCU) and polyetherurethanes (PEU) are used for medical devices, however their bio- and haemocompatibility is limited. In this study, the effect of titaniferous upgrading of different polyurethanes on the bio- and haemocompatibility was investigated by endothelial cell (EC) adhesion/proliferation and platelet [...] Read more.
Polycarbonateurethanes (PCU) and polyetherurethanes (PEU) are used for medical devices, however their bio- and haemocompatibility is limited. In this study, the effect of titaniferous upgrading of different polyurethanes on the bio- and haemocompatibility was investigated by endothelial cell (EC) adhesion/proliferation and platelet adhesion (scanning electron microscopy), respectively. There was no EC adhesion/proliferation and only minor platelet adhesion on upgraded and pure PCU (Desmopan). PEUs (Texin 985, Tecothane 1085, Elastollan 1180A) differed in their cyto- and haemocompatibility. While EC adhesion depended on the type of PEU, any proliferative activity was inhibited. Additional titaniferous upgrading of PEU induced EC proliferation and increased metabolic activity. However, adherent ECs were significantly activated. While Texin was highly thrombotic, only small amounts of platelets adhered onto Tecothane and Elastollan. Additional titaniferous upgrading reduced thrombogenicity of Texin, preserved haemocompatibility of Elastollan, and increased platelet activation/aggregation on Tecothane. In conclusion, none of the PUs was cytocompatible; only titaniferous upgrading allowed EC proliferation and metabolism on PEUs. Haemocompatibility depended on the type of PU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Small Quantities of Oxygen in the Structure, Microstructure, Hardness, Elasticity Modulus and Cytocompatibility of Ti-Zr Alloys for Dental Applications
Materials 2014, 7(1), 542-553; doi:10.3390/ma7010542
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanical properties of Ti alloys are changed significantly with the addition of interstitial elements, such as oxygen. Because oxygen is a strong stabilizer of the α phase and has an effect on hardening in a solid solution, it has aroused great [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of Ti alloys are changed significantly with the addition of interstitial elements, such as oxygen. Because oxygen is a strong stabilizer of the α phase and has an effect on hardening in a solid solution, it has aroused great interest in the biomedical area. In this paper, Ti-Zr alloys were subjected to a doping process with small amounts of oxygen. The influence of interstitial oxygen in the structure, microstructure and some selected mechanical properties of interest for use as biomaterial and biocompatibility of the alloys were analyzed. The results showed that in the range of 0.02 wt% to 0.04 wt%, oxygen has no influence on the structure, microstructure or biocompatibility of the studied alloys, but causes hardening of the alloys, increasing the values of the microhardness and causing variation in the elasticity modulus values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Oxygen Content and Microstructure on the Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility of Ti–15 wt%Mo Alloy Used for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2014, 7(1), 232-243; doi:10.3390/ma7010232
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 December 2013 / Published: 6 January 2014
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Abstract
The Ti–15Mo alloy has its mechanical properties strongly altered by heat treatments and by addition of interstitial elements, such as, oxygen, for example. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of the introduction of oxygen in [...] Read more.
The Ti–15Mo alloy has its mechanical properties strongly altered by heat treatments and by addition of interstitial elements, such as, oxygen, for example. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of the introduction of oxygen in selected mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of Ti–15Mo alloy. The samples used in this study were prepared by arc-melting and characterized by density measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness, modulus of elasticity, and biocompatibility tests. Hardness measurements were shown to be sensitive to concentration of oxygen. The modulus results showed interstitial influence in value; this was verified under several conditions to which the samples were exposed. Cytotoxicity tests conducted in vitro showed that the various processing conditions did not alter the biocompatibility of the material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessArticle Improvement to the Corrosion Resistance of Ti-Based Implants Using Hydrothermally Synthesized Nanostructured Anatase Coatings
Materials 2014, 7(1), 180-194; doi:10.3390/ma7010180
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 9 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 2 January 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The electrochemical behavior of polycrystalline TiO2 anatase coatings prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis on commercially pure (CP) Ti grade 2 and a Ti13Nb13Zr alloy for bone implants was investigated in Hank’s solution at 37.5 °C. The aim was to verify [...] Read more.
The electrochemical behavior of polycrystalline TiO2 anatase coatings prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis on commercially pure (CP) Ti grade 2 and a Ti13Nb13Zr alloy for bone implants was investigated in Hank’s solution at 37.5 °C. The aim was to verify to what extent the in-situ-grown anatase improved the behavior of the substrate in comparison to the bare substrates. Tafel-plot extrapolations from the potentiodynamic curves revealed a substantial improvement in the corrosion potentials for the anatase coatings. Moreover, the coatings grown on titanium also exhibited lower corrosion-current densities, indicating a longer survival of the implant. The results were explained by considering the effects of crystal morphology, coating thickness and porosity. Evidence for the existing porosity was obtained from corrosion and nano-indentation tests. The overall results indicated that the hydrothermally prepared anatase coatings, with the appropriate morphology and surface properties, have attractive prospects for use in medical devices, since better corrosion protection of the implant can be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessArticle Production of Porous β-Type Ti–40Nb Alloy for Biomedical Applications: Comparison of Selective Laser Melting and Hot Pressing
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5700-5712; doi:10.3390/ma6125700
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We used selective laser melting (SLM) and hot pressing of mechanically-alloyed β-type Ti–40Nb powder to fabricate macroporous bulk specimens (solid cylinders). The total porosity, compressive strength, and compressive elastic modulus of the SLM-fabricated material were determined as 17% ± 1%, 968 ± [...] Read more.
We used selective laser melting (SLM) and hot pressing of mechanically-alloyed β-type Ti–40Nb powder to fabricate macroporous bulk specimens (solid cylinders). The total porosity, compressive strength, and compressive elastic modulus of the SLM-fabricated material were determined as 17% ± 1%, 968 ± 8 MPa, and 33 ± 2 GPa, respectively. The alloy’s elastic modulus is comparable to that of healthy cancellous bone. The comparable results for the hot-pressed material were 3% ± 2%, 1400 ± 19 MPa, and 77 ± 3 GPa. This difference in mechanical properties results from different porosity and phase composition of the two alloys. Both SLM-fabricated and hot-pressed cylinders demonstrated good in vitro biocompatibility. The presented results suggest that the SLM-fabricated alloy may be preferable to the hot-pressed alloy for biomedical applications, such as the manufacture of load-bearing metallic components for total joint replacements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessArticle Modified Titanium Surface-Mediated Effects on Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Response
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5533-5548; doi:10.3390/ma6125533
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
PDF Full-text (540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Surface modification of titanium implants is used to enhance osseointegration. The study objective was to evaluate five modified titanium surfaces in terms of cytocompatibility and pro-osteogenic/pro-angiogenic properties for human mesenchymal stromal cells: amorphous microporous silica (AMS), bone morphogenetic protein-2 immobilized on AMS [...] Read more.
Surface modification of titanium implants is used to enhance osseointegration. The study objective was to evaluate five modified titanium surfaces in terms of cytocompatibility and pro-osteogenic/pro-angiogenic properties for human mesenchymal stromal cells: amorphous microporous silica (AMS), bone morphogenetic protein-2 immobilized on AMS (AMS + BMP), bio-active glass (BAG) and two titanium coatings with different porosity (T1; T2). Four surfaces served as controls: uncoated Ti (Ti), Ti functionalized with BMP-2 (Ti + BMP), Ti surface with a thickened titanium oxide layer (TiO2) and a tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS). The proliferation of eGFP-fLuc (enhanced green fluorescence protein-firefly luciferase) transfected cells was tracked non-invasively by fluorescence microscopy and bio-luminescence imaging. The implant surface-mediated effects on cell differentiation potential was tracked by determination of osteogenic and angiogenic parameters [alkaline phosphatase (ALP); osteocalcin (OC); osteoprotegerin (OPG); vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)]. Unrestrained cell proliferation was observed on (un)functionalized Ti and AMS surfaces, whereas BAG and porous titanium coatings T1 and T2 did not support cell proliferation. An important pro-osteogenic and pro-angiogenic potential of the AMS + BMP surface was observed. In contrast, coating the Ti surface with BMP did not affect the osteogenic differentiation of the progenitor cells. A significantly slower BMP-2 release from AMS compared to Ti supports these findings. In the unfunctionalized state, Ti was found to be superior to AMS in terms of OPG and VEGF-A production. AMS is suggested to be a promising implant coating material for bioactive agents delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of the Oxygen Supply and Viability of Human Osteoblasts in Three-Dimensional Titanium Scaffolds Produced by Laser-Beam or Electron-Beam Melting
Materials 2013, 6(11), 5398-5409; doi:10.3390/ma6115398
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synthetic materials for bone replacement must ensure a sufficient mechanical stability and an adequate cell proliferation within the structures. Hereby, titanium materials are suitable for producing patient-individual porous bone scaffolds by using generative techniques. In this in vitro study, the viability of [...] Read more.
Synthetic materials for bone replacement must ensure a sufficient mechanical stability and an adequate cell proliferation within the structures. Hereby, titanium materials are suitable for producing patient-individual porous bone scaffolds by using generative techniques. In this in vitro study, the viability of human osteoblasts was investigated in porous 3D Ti6Al4V scaffolds, which were produced by electron-beam (EBM) or laser-beam melting (LBM). For each examination, two cylindrical scaffolds (30 mm × 10 mm in size, 700 µm × 700 µm macropores) were placed on each other and seeded with cells. The oxygen consumption and the acidification in the center of the structures were investigated by means of microsensors. Additionally, the synthesis of pro-collagen type 1 was analyzed. On the LBM titanium scaffolds, vital bone cells were detected in the center and in the periphery after 8 days of cultivation. In the EBM titanium constructs, however, vital cells were only visible in the center. During the cultivation period, the cells increasingly produced procollagen type 1 in both scaffolds. In comparison to the periphery, the oxygen content in the center of the scaffolds slightly decreased. Furthermore, a slight acidification of the medium was detectable. Compared to LBM, the EBM titanium scaffolds showed a less favorable behavior with regard to cell seeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessArticle Titanium Corrosion Mechanisms in the Oral Environment: A Retrieval Study
Materials 2013, 6(11), 5258-5274; doi:10.3390/ma6115258
Received: 2 October 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Corrosion of titanium dental implants has been associated with implant failure and is considered one of the triggering factors for peri-implantitis. This corrosion is concerning, because a large amount of metal ions and debris are generated in this process, the accumulation of [...] Read more.
Corrosion of titanium dental implants has been associated with implant failure and is considered one of the triggering factors for peri-implantitis. This corrosion is concerning, because a large amount of metal ions and debris are generated in this process, the accumulation of which may lead to adverse tissue reactions in vivo. The goal of this study is to investigate the mechanisms for implant degradation by evaluating the surface of five titanium dental implants retrieved due to peri-implantitis. The results demonstrated that all the implants were subjected to very acidic environments, which, in combination with normal implant loading, led to cases of severe implant discoloration, pitting attack, cracking and fretting-crevice corrosion. The results suggest that acidic environments induced by bacterial biofilms and/or inflammatory processes may trigger oxidation of the surface of titanium dental implants. The corrosive process can lead to permanent breakdown of the oxide film, which, besides releasing metal ions and debris in vivo, may also hinder re-integration of the implant surface with surrounding bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Ti–Zr–Hf–Fe Nanostructured Alloy for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2013, 6(11), 4930-4945; doi:10.3390/ma6114930
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthesis and characterization of Ti40Zr20Hf20Fe20 (atom %) alloy, in the form of rods (f = 2 mm), prepared by arc-melting, and subsequent Cu mold suction casting, is presented. The microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties, [...] Read more.
The synthesis and characterization of Ti40Zr20Hf20Fe20 (atom %) alloy, in the form of rods (f = 2 mm), prepared by arc-melting, and subsequent Cu mold suction casting, is presented. The microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties, as well as in vitro biocompatibility of this alloy, are investigated. This material consists of a mixture of several nanocrystalline phases. It exhibits excellent mechanical behavior, dominated by high strength and relatively low Young’s modulus, and also good corrosion resistance, as evidenced by the passive behavior in a wide potential window and the low corrosion current densities values. In terms of biocompatibility, this alloy is not cytotoxic and preosteoblast cells can easily adhere onto its surface and differentiate into osteoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Porous Ti–6Al–4V Processed by Spherical Powder Sintering
Materials 2013, 6(10), 4868-4878; doi:10.3390/ma6104868
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reducing the stiffness of titanium is an important issue to improve the behavior of this material when working together with bone, which can be achieved by generating a porous structure. The aim of this research was to analyze the porosity and mechanical [...] Read more.
Reducing the stiffness of titanium is an important issue to improve the behavior of this material when working together with bone, which can be achieved by generating a porous structure. The aim of this research was to analyze the porosity and mechanical behavior of Ti–6Al–4V porous samples developed by spherical powder sintering. Four different microsphere sizes were sintered at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1400 °C for 2, 4 and 8 h. An open, interconnected porosity was obtained, with mean pore sizes ranging from 54.6 to 140 µm. The stiffness of the samples diminished by as much as 40% when compared to that of solid material and the mechanical properties were affected mainly by powder particles size. Bending strengths ranging from 48 to 320 MPa and compressive strengths from 51 to 255 MPa were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Roughness and Morphology Customization of Additive Manufactured Open Porous Ti6Al4V Structures
Materials 2013, 6(10), 4737-4757; doi:10.3390/ma6104737
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design of experiments (DoE) was used to customize post AM surface treatment for 3D selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open porous structures for bone tissue engineering. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was employed to assess the individual and interactive effects of the surface treatment duration and the concentration of the chemical etching solution on the final surface roughness and beam thickness of the treated porous structures. It was observed that the concentration of the surface treatment solution was the most important factor influencing roughness reduction. The designed beam thickness decreased the effectiveness of the surface treatment. In this case study, the optimized processing conditions for AM production and the post-AM surface treatment were defined based on the DoE output and were validated experimentally. This allowed the production of customized 3D porous structures with controlled surface roughness and overall morphological properties, which can assist in more controlled evaluation of the effect of surface roughness on various functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1709-1800; doi:10.3390/ma7031709
Received: 20 November 2013 / Revised: 24 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (4511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they [...] Read more.
Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)
Open AccessReview Implications of Surface and Bulk Properties of Abutment Implants and Their Degradation in the Health of Periodontal Tissue
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5951-5966; doi:10.3390/ma6125951
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the current review was to investigate the implications of the surface and bulk properties of abutment implants and their degradation in relation to periodontal health. The success of dental implants is no longer a challenge for dentistry. The scientific [...] Read more.
The aim of the current review was to investigate the implications of the surface and bulk properties of abutment implants and their degradation in relation to periodontal health. The success of dental implants is no longer a challenge for dentistry. The scientific literature presents several types of implants that are specific for each case. However, in cases of prosthetics components, such as abutments, further research is needed to improve the materials used to avoid bacterial adhesion and enhance contact with epithelial cells. The implanted surfaces of the abutments are composed of chemical elements that may degrade under different temperatures or be damaged by the forces applied onto them. This study showed that the resulting release of such chemical elements could cause inflammation in the periodontal tissue. At the same time, the surface characteristics can be altered, thus favoring biofilm development and further increasing the inflammation. Finally, if not treated, this inflammation can cause the loss of the implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application 2013)

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