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Special Issue "Ceramics for Healthcare 2013"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jérôme Chevalier (Website)

INSA Lyon, UMR CNRS 5510, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne, Cedex, France
Interests: ceramics; organic-inorganic composites; biomaterials; mechanical properties; Brittle fracture and fatigue

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High-tech ceramics have always been associated to medical devices: they have been used for more than 40 years in orthopedic devices such as femoral heads and cups for total hip replacement, which is still their major application. Ceramics can also be found as materials for heart valves, bone fillers and more recently for dental restorations. There is a trend today to widespread their use as scaffolds for tissue engineering or drug release, as dental implants or to use them also as particles and microspheres for cancer diagnostic and therapy. A special issue of the journal was published on the topic of 'ceramics for healthcare' in 2010, with 11 review papers from top scientists in the field and 3 full papers. The special issue was a clear success in terms of downloads and citations, showing the large interest of the 'materials community' on that area of research.
Great advances have been made in the field these past few years both on bio-inert and bio-active ceramics and glass ceramics, and on the ceramic products themselves. The latest achievements are also dedicated to better, long-lasting ceramics for implants, osteo-inductive scaffolds and surface modifications. This is the aim of this new special issue to review the new findings in the field of ceramics for orthopedic, dental, cardiovascular and cancer treatments. In addition to review papers written by leading scientists, manuscripts on new approaches to material design, processing and characterization, including in-vitro and in-vivo studies, on new compositions with improved properties or surface modification are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jérôme Chevalier
Guest Editor

Submission

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Keywords

  • biomedical ceramics
  • tissue engineering
  • alumina
  • zirconia
  • calcium phosphate
  • bioactive glasses
  • scaffolds
  • implants
  • nano-particles

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Effect of Polymer Infiltration on the Flexural Behavior of β-Tricalcium Phosphate Robocast Scaffolds
Materials 2014, 7(5), 4001-4018; doi:10.3390/ma7054001
Received: 20 February 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 26 April 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of polymer infiltration on the flexural strength and toughness of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting (direct-write assembly) is analyzed. Porous structures consisting of a tetragonal three-dimensional lattice of interpenetrating rods were impregnated with biodegradable polymers (poly(lactic acid) (PLA) [...] Read more.
The influence of polymer infiltration on the flexural strength and toughness of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting (direct-write assembly) is analyzed. Porous structures consisting of a tetragonal three-dimensional lattice of interpenetrating rods were impregnated with biodegradable polymers (poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)) by immersion of the structure in a polymer melt. Infiltration increased the flexural strength of these model scaffolds by a factor of 5 (PCL) or 22 (PLA), an enhancement considerably greater than that reported for compression strength of analogue materials. The greater strength improvement in bending was attributed to a more effective transfer of stress to the polymer under this solicitation since the degree of strengthening associated to the sealing of precursor flaws in the ceramic rod surfaces should remain unaltered. Impregnation with either polymer also improved further than in compression the fracture energy of the scaffolds (by more than two orders of magnitude). This increase is associated to the extraordinary strengthening provided by impregnation and to a crack bridging toughening mechanism produced by polymer fibrils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cytocompatibility of Siloxane-Containing Vaterite/Poly(l-lactic acid) Composite Coatings on Metallic Magnesium
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5857-5869; doi:10.3390/ma6125857
Received: 25 October 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(l-lactic acid)-based films which include 60 wt % of vaterite (V) or siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV) were coated on a pure magnesium substrate, denoted by PLLA/V or PLLA/SiV, respectively, to suppress early corrosion and improve its cytocompatibility. Both coating films adhered to the [...] Read more.
Poly(l-lactic acid)-based films which include 60 wt % of vaterite (V) or siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV) were coated on a pure magnesium substrate, denoted by PLLA/V or PLLA/SiV, respectively, to suppress early corrosion and improve its cytocompatibility. Both coating films adhered to the Mg substrate with 2.3–2.8 MPa of tensile bonding strength. Soaking test for 7 days in α-modified minimum essential medium revealed that the morphological instability of the PLLA/V film caused a higher amount of Mg2+ ion to be released from the coating sample. On the other hand, in the case of the coating with the PLLA/SiV film, no morphological change even after the soaking test was observed, owing to the suppression of the degradation rate. In cell culture tests, the proliferation of mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1) was significantly enhanced by both coatings, in comparison with the uncoated magnesium substrate. The cell morphology revealed that a few less-spread cells were observed on the PLLA/V film, while more elongated cells were done on the PLLA/SiV film. The cells on the PLLA/SiV film exhibited an extremely higher alkaline phosphatase activity after 21 days of incubation than that on the PLLA/V one. The PLLA/SiV film suppressed the early corrosion and enhanced cytocompatibility on metallic magnesium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Osteogenesis of Radiopaque Dicalcium Silicate Cement and White-Colored Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in a Rabbit Femur Model
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5675-5689; doi:10.3390/ma6125675
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The radiopaque dicalcium silicate cement (RDSC) displayed a shortened setting time and good biocompatibility. This study aimed to compare the regenerative potential of RDSC and white-colored mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using a rabbit femur model. The animals were sacrificed at one, three [...] Read more.
The radiopaque dicalcium silicate cement (RDSC) displayed a shortened setting time and good biocompatibility. This study aimed to compare the regenerative potential of RDSC and white-colored mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using a rabbit femur model. The animals were sacrificed at one, three and six months to accomplish histological and biochemical analyses. The results indicated that after one month of implantation, WMTA was associated with a greyish color alteration within its mass, while RDSC presented color stability even at six months. Histological assay with Masson’s Trichrome and Von Kossa stains showed the presence of newly formed bone surrounding the implanted sites in the rabbit femur. The histochemical data revealed that the RDSC group had significantly more bone regeneration than did the WMTA groups at three and six months. The conclusion drawn is that the encouraging results support the potential applications of RDSC as an improved alternative to WMTA for endodontic uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)
Open AccessArticle Initial Bacterial Adhesion on Different Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Implant Surfaces in Vitro
Materials 2013, 6(12), 5659-5674; doi:10.3390/ma6125659
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with [...] Read more.
Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2 h: 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a), B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) coating (B2a), B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b) and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO2 coatings (B2b). Bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22%) were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80%) were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)
Open AccessArticle Phosphorus Effects of Mesoporous Bioactive Glass on Occlude Exposed Dentin
Materials 2013, 6(11), 5335-5351; doi:10.3390/ma6115335
Received: 11 August 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent studies, sealing of exposed dentinal tubules is generally considered as one of the most effective strategies to treat dentin hypersensitivity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) is a potential material for treating dentin hypersensitivity due to its highly specific areas for dissolution [...] Read more.
In recent studies, sealing of exposed dentinal tubules is generally considered as one of the most effective strategies to treat dentin hypersensitivity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) is a potential material for treating dentin hypersensitivity due to its highly specific areas for dissolution and re-precipitated reaction for reduction in dentin permeability. The groups of commercial products of PerioGlas®, synthetic MBG and MBG without phosphorus (MBGNP) were compared. The MBG and MBGNP powders were prepared by the sol-gel method and mixed with different calculated ratios of phosphoric acid (PA) and then was brushed onto dentin surfaces. We used X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate the physiochemistry and the occlusion ability of dentinal tubules. The results showed that MBG paste mixed with PA solution has a better ability for occluding dentinal tubules than MBGNP; it has a short reaction time and good operability. The major crystallite phase of MBG agents was monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O] in the early stages of the reactions. MBG pastes that were mixed with 30% and 40% PA had the ability to create excellent penetration depth greater than 80 μm. These agents have the potential to treat dentin hypersensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Surface Coating of Oxide Powders: A New Synthesis Method to Process Biomedical Grade Nano-Composites
Materials 2014, 7(7), 5012-5037; doi:10.3390/ma7075012
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Composite and nanocomposite ceramics have achieved special interest in recent years when used for biomedical applications. They have demonstrated, in some cases, increased performance, reliability, and stability in vivo, with respect to pure monolithic ceramics. Current research aims at developing new [...] Read more.
Composite and nanocomposite ceramics have achieved special interest in recent years when used for biomedical applications. They have demonstrated, in some cases, increased performance, reliability, and stability in vivo, with respect to pure monolithic ceramics. Current research aims at developing new compositions and architectures to further increase their properties. However, the ability to tailor the microstructure requires the careful control of all steps of manufacturing, from the synthesis of composite nanopowders, to their processing and sintering. This review aims at deepening understanding of the critical issues associated with the manufacturing of nanocomposite ceramics, focusing on the key role of the synthesis methods to develop homogeneous and tailored microstructures. In this frame, the authors have developed an innovative method, named “surface-coating process”, in which matrix oxide powders are coated with inorganic precursors of the second phase. The method is illustrated into two case studies; the former, on Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) materials for orthopedic applications, and the latter, on Zirconia-based composites for dental implants, discussing the advances and the potential of the method, which can become a valuable alternative to the current synthesis process already used at a clinical and industrial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)
Open AccessReview Biological Activation of Inert Ceramics: Recent Advances Using Tailored Self-Assembled Monolayers on Implant Ceramic Surfaces
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4473-4492; doi:10.3390/ma7064473
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-strength ceramics as materials for medical implants have a long, research-intensive history. Yet, especially on applications where the ceramic components are in direct contact with the surrounding tissue, an unresolved issue is its inherent property of biological inertness. To combat this, several [...] Read more.
High-strength ceramics as materials for medical implants have a long, research-intensive history. Yet, especially on applications where the ceramic components are in direct contact with the surrounding tissue, an unresolved issue is its inherent property of biological inertness. To combat this, several strategies have been investigated over the last couple of years. One promising approach investigates the technique of Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAM) and subsequent chemical functionalization to create a biologically active tissue-facing surface layer. Implementation of this would have a beneficial impact on several fields in modern implant medicine such as hip and knee arthroplasty, dental applications and related fields. This review aims to give a summarizing overview of the latest advances in this recently emerging field, along with thorough introductions of the underlying mechanism of SAMs and surface cell attachment mechanics on the cell side. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)
Open AccessReview Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4367-4410; doi:10.3390/ma7064367
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip joint bearing materials? An answer to this crucial question is searched for in this paper, which identifies ceramic bearings as the most [...] Read more.
Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip joint bearing materials? An answer to this crucial question is searched for in this paper, which identifies ceramic bearings as the most innovative biomaterials in hip arthroplasty. It is shown that, if in vivo exposures comparable to human lifetimes are actually searched for, then fundamental issues should lie in the physical chemistry aspects of biomaterial surfaces. Besides searching for improvements in the phenomenological response of biomaterials to engineering protocols, hip joint components should also be designed to satisfy precise stability requirements in the stoichiometric behavior of their surfaces when exposed to extreme chemical and micromechanical conditions. New spectroscopic protocols have enabled us to visualize surface stoichiometry at the molecular scale, which is shown to be the key for assessing bioceramics with elongated lifetimes with respect to the primitive alumina biomaterials used in the past. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)
Open AccessReview Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics
Materials 2013, 6(9), 3840-3942; doi:10.3390/ma6093840
Received: 20 June 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (2259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. [...] Read more.
Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare 2013)

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