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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 15, Issue 12 (December 2014), Pages 21603-23998

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Open AccessReview From End to End: tRNA Editing at 5'- and 3'-Terminal Positions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23975-23998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223975
Received: 16 November 2014 / Revised: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During maturation, tRNA molecules undergo a series of individual processing steps, ranging from exo- and endonucleolytic trimming reactions at their 5'- and 3'-ends, specific base modifications and intron removal to the addition of the conserved 3'-terminal CCA sequence. Especially in mitochondria, this plethora
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During maturation, tRNA molecules undergo a series of individual processing steps, ranging from exo- and endonucleolytic trimming reactions at their 5'- and 3'-ends, specific base modifications and intron removal to the addition of the conserved 3'-terminal CCA sequence. Especially in mitochondria, this plethora of processing steps is completed by various editing events, where base identities at internal positions are changed and/or nucleotides at 5'- and 3'-ends are replaced or incorporated. In this review, we will focus predominantly on the latter reactions, where a growing number of cases indicate that these editing events represent a rather frequent and widespread phenomenon. While the mechanistic basis for 5'- and 3'-end editing differs dramatically, both reactions represent an absolute requirement for generating a functional tRNA. Current in vivo and in vitro model systems support a scenario in which these highly specific maturation reactions might have evolved out of ancient promiscuous RNA polymerization or quality control systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functions of Transfer RNAs)
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Open AccessReview Inhalation of Silver Nanomaterials—Seeing the Risks
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23936-23974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223936
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (4802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Demand for silver engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is increasing rapidly in optoelectronic and in health and medical applications due to their antibacterial, thermal, electrical conductive, and other properties. The continued commercial up-scaling of ENM production and application needs to be accompanied by an understanding
[...] Read more.
Demand for silver engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is increasing rapidly in optoelectronic and in health and medical applications due to their antibacterial, thermal, electrical conductive, and other properties. The continued commercial up-scaling of ENM production and application needs to be accompanied by an understanding of the occupational health, public safety and environmental implications of these materials. There have been numerous in vitro studies and some in vivo studies of ENM toxicity but their results are frequently inconclusive. Some of the variability between studies has arisen due to a lack of consistency between experimental models, since small differences between test materials can markedly alter their behaviour. In addition, the propensity for the physicochemistry of silver ENMs to alter, sometimes quite radically, depending on the environment they encounter, can profoundly alter their bioreactivity. Consequently, it is important to accurately characterise the materials before use, at the point of exposure and at the nanomaterial-tissue, or “nanobio”, interface, to be able to appreciate their environmental impact. This paper reviews current literature on the pulmonary effects of silver nanomaterials. We focus our review on describing whether, and by which mechanisms, the chemistry and structure of these materials can be linked to their bioreactivity in the respiratory system. In particular, the mechanisms by which the physicochemical properties (e.g., aggregation state, morphology and chemistry) of silver nanomaterials change in various biological milieu (i.e., relevant proteins, lipids and other molecules, and biofluids, such as lung surfactant) and affect subsequent interactions with and within cells will be discussed, in the context not only of what is measured but also of what can be visualized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Lung Diseases)
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Open AccessShort Note Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23924-23935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223924
Received: 29 November 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach
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Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to individual strains (two biofilm-positive and two biofilm-negative) could be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle PLGA Biodegradable Nanoparticles Containing Perphenazine or Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride: Effect of Formulation and Release
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23909-23923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223909
Received: 3 November 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (4227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In our study, poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with perphenazine (PPH) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ-HCl) were formulated by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effect of various processing variables, including PLGA concentration, theoretical drug loading, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and the power of sonication were
[...] Read more.
In our study, poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with perphenazine (PPH) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ-HCl) were formulated by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effect of various processing variables, including PLGA concentration, theoretical drug loading, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and the power of sonication were assessed systematically to obtain higher encapsulation efficiency and to minimize the nanoparticles size. By the optimization formulation process, the nanoparticles were obtained in submicron size from 325.5 ± 32.4 to 374.3 ± 10.1 nm for nanoparticles loaded with PPH and CPZ-HCl, respectively. Nanoparticles observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presented smooth surface and spherical shape. The encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles loaded with PPH and CPZ-HCl were 83.9% and 71.0%, respectively. The drug loading were 51.1% and 39.4% for PPH and CPZ-HCl, respectively. Lyophilized nanoparticles with different PLGA concentration 0.8%, 1.3% and 1.6% (w/v) in formulation process were evaluated for in vitro release in phosphate buffered saline (pH = 7.4) by using dialysis bags. The release profile for both drugs have shown that the rate of PPH and CPZ-HCl release were dependent on a size and amount of drugs in the nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2014)
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Open AccessReview The Promise of Novel Molecular Markers in Bladder Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23897-23908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223897
Received: 18 September 2014 / Revised: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the US and is associated with the highest cost per patient. A high likelihood of recurrence, mandating stringent surveillance protocols, has made the development of urinary markers a focus of intense pursuit with the
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Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the US and is associated with the highest cost per patient. A high likelihood of recurrence, mandating stringent surveillance protocols, has made the development of urinary markers a focus of intense pursuit with the hope of decreasing the burden this disease places on patients and the healthcare system. To date, routine use of markers is not recommended for screening or diagnosis. Interests include the development of a single urinary marker that can be used in place of or as an adjunct to current screening and surveillance techniques, as well identifying a molecular signature for an individual’s disease that can help predict progression, prognosis, and potential therapeutic response. Markers have shown potential value in improving diagnostic accuracy when used as an adjunct to current modalities, risk-stratification of patients that could aid the clinician in determining aggressiveness of surveillance, and allowing for a decrease in invasive surveillance procedures. This review discusses the current understanding of emerging biomarkers, including miRNAs, gene signatures and detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood, and their potential clinical value in bladder cancer diagnosis, as prognostic indicators, and surveillance tools, as well as limitations to their incorporation into medical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Classes of Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessReview Emerging Biomarkers in Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23878-23896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223878
Received: 8 November 2014 / Revised: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomarkers are objective tools with an important role for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy optimization in patients with heart failure (HF). To date, natriuretic peptides are closest to optimal biomarker standards for clinical implications in HF. Therefore, the efforts to identify and test new
[...] Read more.
Biomarkers are objective tools with an important role for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy optimization in patients with heart failure (HF). To date, natriuretic peptides are closest to optimal biomarker standards for clinical implications in HF. Therefore, the efforts to identify and test new biomarkers in HF are reasonable and justified. Along the natural history of HF, cardiac cachexia may develop, and once at this stage, patient performance and prognosis is particularly poor. For these reasons, numerous biomarkers reflecting hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways have been investigated, but only a few convey relevant information. The complex pathophysiology of HF appears far too complex to be embraced by a single biomarker; thus, a combined approach appears reasonable. With these considerations, we have reviewed the recent developments in the field to highlight key candidates with diagnostic, prognostic and therapy optimization properties, either alone or in combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Classes of Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics)
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Open AccessReview Characterization and Study of Transgenic Cultivars by Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23851-23877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223851
Received: 21 October 2014 / Revised: 15 December 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advances in biotechnology have increased the demand for suitable analytical techniques for the analysis of genetically modified organisms. Study of the substantial equivalence, discrimination between transgenic and non-transgenic cultivars, study of the unintended effects caused by a genetic modification or their response to
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Advances in biotechnology have increased the demand for suitable analytical techniques for the analysis of genetically modified organisms. Study of the substantial equivalence, discrimination between transgenic and non-transgenic cultivars, study of the unintended effects caused by a genetic modification or their response to diverse situations or stress conditions (e.g., environmental, climatic, infections) are some of the concerns that need to be addressed. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is emerging as an alternative to conventional techniques for the study and characterization of genetically modified organisms. This article reviews the most recent applications of CE for the analysis and characterization of transgenic cultivars in the last five years. Different strategies have been described depending on the level analyzed (DNA, proteins or metabolites). Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) has shown to be particularly useful for the analysis of DNA fragments amplified by PCR. Metabolites and proteins have been mainly separated using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using UV and MS detection. Electrophoretic chips have also proven their ability in the analysis of transgenic cultivars and a section describing the new applications is also included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle Rise-Time of FRET-Acceptor Fluorescence Tracks Protein Folding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23836-23850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223836
Received: 28 October 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Uniform labeling of proteins with fluorescent donor and acceptor dyes with an equimolar ratio is paramount for accurate determination of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies. In practice, however, the labeled protein population contains donor-labeled molecules that have no corresponding acceptor. These FRET-inactive
[...] Read more.
Uniform labeling of proteins with fluorescent donor and acceptor dyes with an equimolar ratio is paramount for accurate determination of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies. In practice, however, the labeled protein population contains donor-labeled molecules that have no corresponding acceptor. These FRET-inactive donors contaminate the donor fluorescence signal, which leads to underestimation of FRET efficiencies in conventional fluorescence intensity and lifetime-based FRET experiments. Such contamination is avoided if FRET efficiencies are extracted from the rise time of acceptor fluorescence upon donor excitation. The reciprocal value of the rise time of acceptor fluorescence is equal to the decay rate of the FRET-active donor fluorescence. Here, we have determined rise times of sensitized acceptor fluorescence to study the folding of double-labeled apoflavodoxin molecules and show that this approach tracks the characteristics of apoflavodoxinʼs complex folding pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) 2015)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Microvascular Remodeling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23792-23835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223792
Received: 30 October 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The microcirculation is a portion of the vascular circulatory system that consists of resistance arteries, arterioles, capillaries and venules. It is the place where gases and nutrients are exchanged between blood and tissues. In addition the microcirculation is the major contributor to blood
[...] Read more.
The microcirculation is a portion of the vascular circulatory system that consists of resistance arteries, arterioles, capillaries and venules. It is the place where gases and nutrients are exchanged between blood and tissues. In addition the microcirculation is the major contributor to blood flow resistance and consequently to regulation of blood pressure. Therefore, structural remodeling of this section of the vascular tree has profound implications on cardiovascular pathophysiology. This review is focused on the role that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play on changing the structural characteristics of vessels within the microcirculation. Particular attention is given to the resistance arteries and the functional pathways that are affected by ROS in these vessels and subsequently induce vascular remodeling. The primary sources of ROS in the microcirculation are identified and the effects of ROS on other microcirculatory remodeling phenomena such as rarefaction and collateralization are briefly reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease 2015)
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Open AccessArticle When Isolated at Full Receptivity, in Vitro Fertilized Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) Egg Cells Reveal [Ca2+]cyt Oscillation of Intracellular Origin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23766-23791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223766
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
PDF Full-text (3263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference
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During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to) the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Sperm-Egg Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23749-23765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223749
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7
[...] Read more.
Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessReview Regulation of Angiogenesis by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23725-23748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223725
Received: 17 November 2014 / Revised: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to their canonical roles in translation the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) have developed secondary functions over the course of evolution. Many of these activities are associated with cellular survival and nutritional stress responses essential for homeostatic processes in higher eukaryotes. In particular,
[...] Read more.
In addition to their canonical roles in translation the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) have developed secondary functions over the course of evolution. Many of these activities are associated with cellular survival and nutritional stress responses essential for homeostatic processes in higher eukaryotes. In particular, six ARSs and one associated factor have documented functions in angiogenesis. However, despite their connection to this process, the ARSs are mechanistically distinct and exhibit a range of positive or negative effects on aspects of endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival. This variability is achieved through the appearance of appended domains and interplay with inflammatory pathways not found in prokaryotic systems. Complete knowledge of the non-canonical functions of ARSs is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying the physiological regulation of angiogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functions of Transfer RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle Lunasin Sensitivity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Is Linked to Suppression of Integrin Signaling and Changes in Histone Acetylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23705-23724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223705
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lunasin is a plant derived bioactive peptide with both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activity. We recently showed lunasin inhibits non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation in a cell-line-specific manner. We now compared the effects of lunasin treatment of lunasin-sensitive (H661) and lunasin-insensitive
[...] Read more.
Lunasin is a plant derived bioactive peptide with both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activity. We recently showed lunasin inhibits non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation in a cell-line-specific manner. We now compared the effects of lunasin treatment of lunasin-sensitive (H661) and lunasin-insensitive (H1299) NSCLC cells with respect to lunasin uptake, histone acetylation and integrin signaling. Both cell lines exhibited changes in histone acetylation, with H661 cells showing a unique increase in H4K16 acetylation. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated lunasin interacted with integrins containing αv, α5, β1 and β3 subunits to a larger extent in the H661 compared to H1299 cells. Moreover, lunasin specifically disrupted the interaction of β1 and β3 subunits with the downstream signaling components phosphorylated Focal Adhesion Kinase (pFAK), Kindlin and Intergrin Linked Kinase in H661 cells. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated lunasin treatment of H661 resulted in reduced levels of pFAK, phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated ERK1/2 whereas no changes were observed in H1299 cells. Silencing of αv expression in H661 cells confirmed signaling through integrins containing αv is essential for proliferation. Moreover, lunasin was unable to further inhibit proliferation in αv-silenced H661 cells. This indicates antagonism of integrin signaling via αv-containing integrins is an important component of lunasin’s mechanism of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Proteins and Peptides Derived from Food)
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Open AccessReview P2X and P2Y Receptors—Role in the Pathophysiology of the Nervous System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23672-23704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223672
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 6 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purinergic signalling plays a crucial role in proper functioning of the nervous system. Mechanisms depending on extracellular nucleotides and their P2 receptors also underlie a number of nervous system dysfunctions. This review aims to present the role of purinergic signalling, with particular focus
[...] Read more.
Purinergic signalling plays a crucial role in proper functioning of the nervous system. Mechanisms depending on extracellular nucleotides and their P2 receptors also underlie a number of nervous system dysfunctions. This review aims to present the role of purinergic signalling, with particular focus devoted to role of P2 family receptors, in epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, nervous system neoplasms, such as glioma and neuroblastoma, neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. The above-mentioned conditions are associated with changes in expression of extracellular ectonucleotidases, P2X and P2Y receptors in neurons and glial cells, as well as releasing considerable amounts of nucleotides from activated or damaged nervous tissue cells into the extracellular space, which contributes to disturbance in purinergic signalling. The numerous studies indicate a potential possibility of using synthetic agonists/antagonists of P2 receptors in treatment of selected nervous system diseases. This is of particular significance, since numerous available agents reveal a low effectiveness and often produce side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Refolded scFv Antibody Fragment against Myoglobin Shows Rapid Reaction Kinetics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23658-23671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223658
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage
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Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage of in vivo immunization. We produced a recombinant scFv fragment for the premature antibody from Escherichia coli using refolding technology. The scFv gene was constructed by connection of the VHVL sequence with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The scFv fragment without the pelB leader sequence was expressed at a high level, but the solubility was extremely low. A high concentration of 8 M urea was used for denaturation. The dilution refolding process in the presence of arginine and the redox reagents GSH and GSSH successfully produced a soluble scFv protein. The resultant refolded scFv protein showed association and dissociation values of 9.32 × 10−4 M−1·s−1 and 6.29 × 10−3 s−1, respectively, with an affinity value exceeding 107 M−1 (kon/koff), maintaining the original rapid reaction kinetics of the premature antibody. The refolded scFv could provide a platform for protein engineering for the clinical application for diagnosis of heart disease and the development of a continuous biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Protein Folding)
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Open AccessReview Emerging Regulation and Function of Betatrophin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23640-23657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223640
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Betatrophin, also known as TD26/RIFL/lipasin/ANGPTL8/C19orf80, is a novel protein predominantly expressed in human liver. To date, several betatrophin orthologs have been identified in mammals. Increasing evidence has revealed an association between betatrophin expression and serum lipid profiles, particularly in patients with obesity or
[...] Read more.
Betatrophin, also known as TD26/RIFL/lipasin/ANGPTL8/C19orf80, is a novel protein predominantly expressed in human liver. To date, several betatrophin orthologs have been identified in mammals. Increasing evidence has revealed an association between betatrophin expression and serum lipid profiles, particularly in patients with obesity or diabetes. Stimulators of betatrophin, such as insulin, thyroid hormone, irisin and caloric intake, are usually relevant to energy expenditure or thermogenesis. In murine models, serum triglyceride levels as well as pancreatic cell proliferation are potently enhanced by betatrophin. Intriguingly, conflicting phenomena have also been reported that betatrophin suppresses hepatic triglyceride levels, suggesting that betatrophin function is mediated by complex regulatory processes. However, its precise physiological role remains unclear at present. In this review, we have summarized the current findings on betatrophin and their implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessReview Contrast Agents for Photoacoustic and Thermoacoustic Imaging: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23616-23639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223616
Received: 18 October 2014 / Revised: 18 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (2732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) are two emerging biomedical imaging techniques that both utilize ultrasonic signals as an information carrier. Unique advantages of PAI and TAI are their abilities to provide high resolution functional information such as hemoglobin and blood oxygenation
[...] Read more.
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) are two emerging biomedical imaging techniques that both utilize ultrasonic signals as an information carrier. Unique advantages of PAI and TAI are their abilities to provide high resolution functional information such as hemoglobin and blood oxygenation and tissue dielectric properties relevant to physiology and pathology. These two methods, however, may have a limited detection depth and lack of endogenous contrast. An exogenous contrast agent is often needed to effectively resolve these problems. Such agents are able to greatly enhance the imaging contrast and potentially break through the imaging depth limit. Furthermore, a receptor-targeted contrast agent could trace the molecular and cellular biological processes in tissues. Thus, photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging can be outstanding tools for early diagnosis, precise lesion localization, and molecular typing of various diseases. The agents also could be used for therapy in conjugation with drugs or in photothermal therapy, where it functions as an enhancer for the integration of diagnosis and therapy. In this article, we present a detailed review about various exogenous contrast agents for photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging. In addition, challenges and future directions of photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging in the field of translational medicine are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle Nano-Scale Spatial Assessment of Calcium Distribution in Coccolithophores Using Synchrotron-Based Nano-CT and STXM-NEXAFS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23604-23615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223604
Received: 20 October 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcified coccolithophores generate calcium carbonate scales around their cell surface. In light of predicted climate change and the global carbon cycle, the biomineralization ability of coccoliths has received growing interest. However, the underlying biomineralization mechanism is not yet well understood; the lack of
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Calcified coccolithophores generate calcium carbonate scales around their cell surface. In light of predicted climate change and the global carbon cycle, the biomineralization ability of coccoliths has received growing interest. However, the underlying biomineralization mechanism is not yet well understood; the lack of non-invasive characterizing tools to obtain molecular level information involving biogenic processes and biomineral components remain significant challenges. In the present study, synchrotron-based Nano-computed Tomography (Nano-CT) and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy-Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectromicroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) techniques were employed to identify Ca spatial distribution and investigate the compositional chemistry and distinctive features of the association between biomacromolecules and mineral components of calcite present in coccoliths. The Nano-CT results show that the coccolith scale vesicle is similar as a continuous single channel. The mature coccoliths were intracellularly distributed and immediately ejected and located at the exterior surface to form a coccoshpere. The NEXAFS spectromicroscopy results of the Ca L edge clearly demonstrate the existence of two levels of gradients spatially, indicating two distinctive forms of Ca in coccoliths: a crystalline-poor layer surrounded by a relatively crystalline-rich layer. The results show that Sr is absorbed by the coccoliths and that Sr/Ca substitution is rather homogeneous within the coccoliths. Our findings indicate that synchrotron-based STXM-NEXAFS and Nano-CT are excellent tools for the study of biominerals and provide information to clarify biomineralization mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle The Sesquiterpene Biosynthesis and Vessel-Occlusion Formation in Stems of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg Trees Induced by Wounding Treatments without Variation of Microbial Communities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23589-23603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223589
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As widely recognized, agarwood formation in Aquilaria trees is induced by external wounding. Because agarwood usually harbors specific microbes, the function of microbes in agarwood formation has been debated for almost a century. In this study, two wounding methods, the burning-chisel-drilling method (BCD)
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As widely recognized, agarwood formation in Aquilaria trees is induced by external wounding. Because agarwood usually harbors specific microbes, the function of microbes in agarwood formation has been debated for almost a century. In this study, two wounding methods, the burning-chisel-drilling method (BCD) and the whole-tree agarwood-inducing method (Agar-Wit), were used under the non-contamination of environmental microorganisms. After pyrosequencing the small rRNA subunits of the wounds induced by the BCD and Agar-Wit, no substantial variation was observed either in fungal and bacterial enrichment and diversity or in the relative abundances of taxa. By contrast, significant variations in fungal and bacterial communities were detected following the partial tree pruning (PTP)-wounding. The wound-induced sesquiterpene biosynthesis and vessel-occlusion formation, however, were found to be similar in all types of wounded trunks. We thus infer that wounding in the absence of variations in microbial communities may induce agarwood formation. This result does not support the long-standing notion that agarwood formation depends on microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Docetaxel-Encapsulating Small-Sized Polymeric Micelles with Higher Permeability and Its Efficacy on the Orthotopic Transplantation Model of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23571-23588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223571
Received: 12 September 2014 / Revised: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) elicits a dense stromal response that blocks vascular access because of pericyte coverage of vascular fenestrations. In this way, the PDAC stroma contributes to chemotherapy resistance, and the small-sized nanocarrier loaded with platinum has been adopted to address this
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) elicits a dense stromal response that blocks vascular access because of pericyte coverage of vascular fenestrations. In this way, the PDAC stroma contributes to chemotherapy resistance, and the small-sized nanocarrier loaded with platinum has been adopted to address this problem which is not suitable for loading docetaxel (DTX). In the present study, we used the poly(d,l-lactide)-b-polyethylene glycol-methoxy (mPEG-b-PDLLA) to encapsulate DTX and got a small-sized polymeric micelle (SPM); meanwhile we functionalized the SPM’s surface with TAT peptide (TAT-PM) for a higher permeability. The diameters of both SPM and TAT-PM were in the range of 15–26 nm. In vitro experiments demonstrated that TAT-PM inhibited Capan-2 Luc PDAC cells growth more efficiently and induced more apoptosis compared to SPM and Duopafei. The in vivo therapeutic efficiencies of SPM and TAT-PM compared to free DTX was investigated on the orthotopic transplantation model of Capan-2 Luc. SPM exerted better therapeutic efficiency than free DTX, however, TAT-PM didn’t outperformed SPM. Overall, these results disclosed that SPM could represent a new therapeutic approach against pancreatic cancer, but its permeability to PDAC was not the only decisive factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Antiproliferative Compounds of Lipidic Fractions from White Shrimp Muscle (Litopenaeus vannamei)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23555-23570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223555
Received: 27 October 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shrimp is one of the most popular seafood items worldwide, and has been reported as a source of chemopreventive compounds. In this study, shrimp lipids were separated by solvent partition and further fractionated by semi-preparative RP-HPLC and finally by open column chromatography in
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Shrimp is one of the most popular seafood items worldwide, and has been reported as a source of chemopreventive compounds. In this study, shrimp lipids were separated by solvent partition and further fractionated by semi-preparative RP-HPLC and finally by open column chromatography in order to obtain isolated antiproliferative compounds. Antiproliferative activity was assessed by inhibition of M12.C3.F6 murine cell growth using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The methanolic fraction showed the highest antiproliferative activity; this fraction was separated into 15 different sub-fractions (M1–M15). Fractions M8, M9, M10, M12, and M13 were antiproliferative at 100 µg/mL and they were further tested at lower concentrations. Fractions M12 and M13 exerted the highest growth inhibition with an IC50 of 19.5 ± 8.6 and 34.9 ± 7.3 µg/mL, respectively. Fraction M12 was further fractionated in three sub-fractions M12a, M12b, and M12c. Fraction M12a was identified as di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate, fraction M12b as a triglyceride substituted by at least two fatty acids (predominantly oleic acid accompanied with eicosapentaenoic acid) and fraction M12c as another triglyceride substituted with eicosapentaenoic acid and saturated fatty acids. Bioactive triglyceride contained in M12c exerted the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC50 of 11.33 ± 5.6 µg/mL. Biological activity in shrimp had been previously attributed to astaxanthin; this study demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids are the main compounds responsible for antiproliferative activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle The Dynamics of DNA Methylation in Maize Roots under Pb Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23537-23554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223537
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plants adapt to adverse conditions through a series of physiological, cellular, and molecular processes, culminating in stress tolerance. However, little is known about the associated regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level in maize under lead (Pb) stress. Therefore, in this study, we aimed
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Plants adapt to adverse conditions through a series of physiological, cellular, and molecular processes, culminating in stress tolerance. However, little is known about the associated regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level in maize under lead (Pb) stress. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to compare DNA methylation profiles during the dynamic development of maize roots following Pb treatment to identify candidate genes involved in the response to Pb stress. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in maize roots under normal condition (A1) and 3 mM Pb(NO3)2 stress for 12 h (K2), 24 h (K3) and 48 h (K4). The results showed that the average methylation density was the highest in CpG islands (CGIs), followed by the intergenic regions. Within the gene body, the methylation density of the introns was higher than those of the UTRs and exons. In total, 3857 methylated genes were found in 4 tested samples, including 1805 differentially methylated genes for K2 versus A1, 1508 for K3 versus A1, and 1660 for K4 versus A1. Further analysis showed that 140 genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in all three comparisons, including some well-known stress-responsive transcription factors and proteins, such as MYB, AP2/ERF, bZIP, serine-threonine/tyrosine-proteins, pentatricopeptide repeat proteins, RING zinc finger proteins, F-box proteins, leucine-rich repeat proteins and tetratricopeptide repeat proteins. This study revealed the genome-scale DNA methylation patterns of maize roots in response to Pb exposure and identified candidate genes that potentially regulate root dynamic development under Pb stress at the methylation level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lidocaine Sensitizes the Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin in Breast Cancer Cells via Up-Regulation of RARβ2 and RASSF1A Demethylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23519-23536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223519
Received: 19 July 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It has been reported that lidocaine is toxic to various types of cells. And a recent study has confirmed that lidocaine exerts a demethylation effect and regulates the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines. To recognize a potential anti-tumor effect of lidocaine,
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It has been reported that lidocaine is toxic to various types of cells. And a recent study has confirmed that lidocaine exerts a demethylation effect and regulates the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines. To recognize a potential anti-tumor effect of lidocaine, we evaluated the DNA demethylation by lidocaine in human breast cancer lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and determined the influence of demethylation on the toxicity to these cells of cisplatin, which is a commonly utilized anti-tumor agent for breast cancer. Results demonstrated that lidocaine promoted a significant global genomic demethylation, and particularly in the promoters of tumor suppressive genes (TSGs), RARβ2 and RASSF1A. Further, the lidocaine treatment increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis and enhanced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. The combined treatment with both lidocaine and cisplatin promoted a significantly higher level of MCF-7 cell apoptosis than singular lidocaine or cisplatin treatment. Moreover, the abrogation of RARβ2 or RASSF1A expression inhibited such apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the demethylation effect of lidocaine in breast cancer cells, and found that the demethylation of RARβ2 and RASSF1A sensitized the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
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Open AccessReview TXNDC5, a Newly Discovered Disulfide Isomerase with a Key Role in Cell Physiology and Pathology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23501-23518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223501
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Thioredoxin domain-containing 5 (TXNDC5) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, acting as a chaperone of endoplasmic reticulum under not fully characterized conditions As a result, TXNDC5 interacts with many cell proteins, contributing to their proper folding and correct formation of
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Thioredoxin domain-containing 5 (TXNDC5) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, acting as a chaperone of endoplasmic reticulum under not fully characterized conditions As a result, TXNDC5 interacts with many cell proteins, contributing to their proper folding and correct formation of disulfide bonds through its thioredoxin domains. Moreover, it can also work as an electron transfer reaction, recovering the functional isoform of other protein disulfide isomerases, replacing reduced glutathione in its role. Finally, it also acts as a cellular adapter, interacting with the N-terminal domain of adiponectin receptor. As can be inferred from all these functions, TXNDC5 plays an important role in cell physiology; therefore, dysregulation of its expression is associated with oxidative stress, cell ageing and a large range of pathologies such as arthritis, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, vitiligo and virus infections. Its implication in all these important diseases has made TXNDC5 a susceptible biomarker or even a potential pharmacological target. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Protecting the Melatonin Rhythm through Circadian Healthy Light Exposure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23448-23500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223448
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 2 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 November 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (3393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, in developed countries, nights are excessively illuminated (light at night), whereas daytime is mainly spent indoors, and thus people are exposed to much lower light intensities than under natural conditions. In spite of the positive impact of artificial light, we pay a
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Currently, in developed countries, nights are excessively illuminated (light at night), whereas daytime is mainly spent indoors, and thus people are exposed to much lower light intensities than under natural conditions. In spite of the positive impact of artificial light, we pay a price for the easy access to light during the night: disorganization of our circadian system or chronodisruption (CD), including perturbations in melatonin rhythm. Epidemiological studies show that CD is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes, obesity, heart disease, cognitive and affective impairment, premature aging and some types of cancer. Knowledge of retinal photoreceptors and the discovery of melanopsin in some ganglion cells demonstrate that light intensity, timing and spectrum must be considered to keep the biological clock properly entrained. Importantly, not all wavelengths of light are equally chronodisrupting. Blue light, which is particularly beneficial during the daytime, seems to be more disruptive at night, and induces the strongest melatonin inhibition. Nocturnal blue light exposure is currently increasing, due to the proliferation of energy-efficient lighting (LEDs) and electronic devices. Thus, the development of lighting systems that preserve the melatonin rhythm could reduce the health risks induced by chronodisruption. This review addresses the state of the art regarding the crosstalk between light and the circadian system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Melatonin 2014)
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Open AccessReview Recent Developments in β-Cell Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced by Small and Large Molecules
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23418-23447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223418
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play
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Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate) and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α), and WNT3A) are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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Open AccessArticle PRRT2 Mutations Are Related to Febrile Seizures in Epileptic Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23408-23417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223408
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies reported that the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene was identified to be related to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), infantile convulsions with PKD, PKD with migraine and benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE). The present study explores whether the PRRT2
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Previous studies reported that the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene was identified to be related to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), infantile convulsions with PKD, PKD with migraine and benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE). The present study explores whether the PRRT2 mutation is a potential cause of febrile seizures, including febrile seizures plus (FS+), generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS); thus, it may provide a new drug target for personalized medicine for febrile seizure patients. We screened PRRT2 exons in a cohort of 136 epileptic patients with febrile seizures, including FS+, GEFS+ and DS. PRRT2 genetic mutations were identified in 25 out of 136 (18.4%) febrile seizures in epileptic patients. Five loss-of-function and coding missense mutations were identified: c.649delC (p.R217Efs*12), c.649_650insC (p.R217Pfs*8), c.412C>G (p.Pro138Ala), c.439G>C (p.Asp147His) and c.623C>A (p.Ser208Tyr). PRRT2 variants were probably involved in the etiology of febrile seizures in epileptic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacogenetics and Personalized Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle Homogenized Finite Element Analysis on Effective Elastoplastic Mechanical Behaviors of Composite with Imperfect Interfaces
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23389-23407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223389
Received: 9 November 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) representative volume element (RVE) model was developed for analyzing effective mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with imperfect interfaces. In the model, the fiber is assumed to be perfectly elastic until its tensile strength, and the ceramic material is
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A three-dimensional (3D) representative volume element (RVE) model was developed for analyzing effective mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with imperfect interfaces. In the model, the fiber is assumed to be perfectly elastic until its tensile strength, and the ceramic material is modeled by an elasto-plastic Drucker-Prager constitutive law. The RVE model is then used to study the elastic properties and the tensile strength of composites with imperfect interfaces and validated through experiments. The imperfect interfaces between the fiber and the matrix are taken into account by introducing some cohesive contact surfaces. The influences of the interface on the elastic constants and the tensile strengths are examined through these interface models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
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Open AccessReview RNA Recognition and Stress Granule Formation by TIA Proteins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23377-23388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223377
Received: 26 October 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stress granule (SG) formation is a primary mechanism through which gene expression is rapidly modulated when the eukaryotic cell undergoes cellular stresses (including heat, oxidative, viral infection, starvation). In particular, the sequestration of specifically targeted translationally stalled mRNAs into SGs limits the expression
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Stress granule (SG) formation is a primary mechanism through which gene expression is rapidly modulated when the eukaryotic cell undergoes cellular stresses (including heat, oxidative, viral infection, starvation). In particular, the sequestration of specifically targeted translationally stalled mRNAs into SGs limits the expression of a subset of genes, but allows the expression of heatshock proteins that have a protective effect in the cell. The importance of SGs is seen in several disease states in which SG function is disrupted. Fundamental to SG formation are the T cell restricted intracellular antigen (TIA) proteins (TIA-1 and TIA-1 related protein (TIAR)), that both directly bind to target RNA and self-associate to seed the formation of SGs. Here a summary is provided of the current understanding of the way in which TIA proteins target specific mRNA, and how TIA self-association is triggered under conditions of cellular stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation by Ribonucleoprotein Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23359-23376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223359
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 25 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem
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The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Although the cultured MSCs had osteogenic potential, their contribution to spinal fusion when seeded in mineral scaffolds, in the conditions disclosed here, remains uncertain probably due to callus interference with the scaffolds. At present, bone autografts are better than hybrid constructs for posterolateral lumbar fusion, but we should continue to seek better conditions for efficient tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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