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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23672-23704; doi:10.3390/ijms151223672

P2X and P2Y Receptors—Role in the Pathophysiology of the Nervous System

1
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, 72 Powstańców Wielkopolskich Street, Szczecin 70-111, Poland
2
Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University, 72 Powstańców Wielkopolskich Street, Szczecin 70-111, Poland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 6 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
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Abstract

Purinergic signalling plays a crucial role in proper functioning of the nervous system. Mechanisms depending on extracellular nucleotides and their P2 receptors also underlie a number of nervous system dysfunctions. This review aims to present the role of purinergic signalling, with particular focus devoted to role of P2 family receptors, in epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, nervous system neoplasms, such as glioma and neuroblastoma, neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. The above-mentioned conditions are associated with changes in expression of extracellular ectonucleotidases, P2X and P2Y receptors in neurons and glial cells, as well as releasing considerable amounts of nucleotides from activated or damaged nervous tissue cells into the extracellular space, which contributes to disturbance in purinergic signalling. The numerous studies indicate a potential possibility of using synthetic agonists/antagonists of P2 receptors in treatment of selected nervous system diseases. This is of particular significance, since numerous available agents reveal a low effectiveness and often produce side effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; ATP; depression; epilepsy; glioma; multiple sclerosis; neurodegenerative disease; neuropathic pain; P2X receptors; P2Y receptors Alzheimer’s disease; ATP; depression; epilepsy; glioma; multiple sclerosis; neurodegenerative disease; neuropathic pain; P2X receptors; P2Y receptors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Puchałowicz, K.; Tarnowski, M.; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I.; Chlubek, D.; Dziedziejko, V. P2X and P2Y Receptors—Role in the Pathophysiology of the Nervous System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 23672-23704.

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