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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23909-23923; doi:10.3390/ijms151223909

PLGA Biodegradable Nanoparticles Containing Perphenazine or Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride: Effect of Formulation and Release

1
Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, Warsaw 00-664, Poland
2
Thermodynamic Research Unit, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, King George V Avenue, Durban 4041, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2014)
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Abstract

In our study, poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with perphenazine (PPH) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ-HCl) were formulated by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effect of various processing variables, including PLGA concentration, theoretical drug loading, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and the power of sonication were assessed systematically to obtain higher encapsulation efficiency and to minimize the nanoparticles size. By the optimization formulation process, the nanoparticles were obtained in submicron size from 325.5 ± 32.4 to 374.3 ± 10.1 nm for nanoparticles loaded with PPH and CPZ-HCl, respectively. Nanoparticles observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presented smooth surface and spherical shape. The encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles loaded with PPH and CPZ-HCl were 83.9% and 71.0%, respectively. The drug loading were 51.1% and 39.4% for PPH and CPZ-HCl, respectively. Lyophilized nanoparticles with different PLGA concentration 0.8%, 1.3% and 1.6% (w/v) in formulation process were evaluated for in vitro release in phosphate buffered saline (pH = 7.4) by using dialysis bags. The release profile for both drugs have shown that the rate of PPH and CPZ-HCl release were dependent on a size and amount of drugs in the nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: perphenazine; chlorpromazine hydrochloride; psychotic drugs; experimental nanomedicine; PLGA; physicochemical properties of nanoparticles; controlled drug delivery perphenazine; chlorpromazine hydrochloride; psychotic drugs; experimental nanomedicine; PLGA; physicochemical properties of nanoparticles; controlled drug delivery
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Halayqa, M.; Domańska, U. PLGA Biodegradable Nanoparticles Containing Perphenazine or Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride: Effect of Formulation and Release. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 23909-23923.

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