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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23878-23896; doi:10.3390/ijms151223878

Emerging Biomarkers in Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia

1
Clinical Hospital Zvezdara, Cardiology Department, Dimitrija Tucovica 161, Belgrade 11000, Serbia
2
National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
3
School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11000, Serbia
4
Department of Cardiology, General Hospital Celje, Oblakova 5, Celje 3000, Slovenia
5
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2014 / Revised: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Classes of Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics)
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Abstract

Biomarkers are objective tools with an important role for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy optimization in patients with heart failure (HF). To date, natriuretic peptides are closest to optimal biomarker standards for clinical implications in HF. Therefore, the efforts to identify and test new biomarkers in HF are reasonable and justified. Along the natural history of HF, cardiac cachexia may develop, and once at this stage, patient performance and prognosis is particularly poor. For these reasons, numerous biomarkers reflecting hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways have been investigated, but only a few convey relevant information. The complex pathophysiology of HF appears far too complex to be embraced by a single biomarker; thus, a combined approach appears reasonable. With these considerations, we have reviewed the recent developments in the field to highlight key candidates with diagnostic, prognostic and therapy optimization properties, either alone or in combination. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart failure; cardiac cachexia; emerging biomarkers heart failure; cardiac cachexia; emerging biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Loncar, G.; Omersa, D.; Cvetinovic, N.; Arandjelovic, A.; Lainscak, M. Emerging Biomarkers in Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 23878-23896.

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