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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 16, Issue 1 (January 2015), Pages 1-2268

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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of the IgE-Mediated Activation of RBL-2H3 Cells by TIPP, a Novel Thymic Immunosuppressive Pentapeptide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2252-2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012252
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (5297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
TIPP is a novel thymic immunosuppressive pentapeptide originally obtained from calf thymic immunosuppressive extract. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of TIPP on IgE-mediated activation of RBL-2H3 cells. Release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine, intracellular calcium, membrane ruffling, mRNA levels of
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TIPP is a novel thymic immunosuppressive pentapeptide originally obtained from calf thymic immunosuppressive extract. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of TIPP on IgE-mediated activation of RBL-2H3 cells. Release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine, intracellular calcium, membrane ruffling, mRNA levels of cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) and NF-κB were determined by colorimetric assay, fluorescence spectrophotometer, confocal fluorescence microscope, quantification PCR, and Western blot, respectively. The results showed that TIPP significantly inhibited the degranulation in IgE-antigen complex-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells without cytotoxicity. TIPP significantly suppressed the increase of intracellular calcium and the rearrangement of F-actin, attenuated the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-3, -4, -6, -13, TNF-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), and decreased the expression of COX-2. Western blot analysis showed that TIPP had an inhibitory activity on the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), and inhibited the activation of NF-κB. The data suggested that TIPP effectively suppressed IgE-mediated activation of RBL-2H3 cells via blocking MEK/ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical and Anticorrosive Properties of Graphene/Epoxy Resin Composites Coating Prepared by in-Situ Method
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2239-2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012239
Received: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The graphene nanosheets-based epoxy resin coating (0, 0.1, 0.4 and 0.7 wt %) was prepared by a situ-synthesis method. The effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone/reduced graphene oxide (PVP-rGO) on mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resin coating was investigated using nanoindentation technique and thermogravimetric analysis,
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The graphene nanosheets-based epoxy resin coating (0, 0.1, 0.4 and 0.7 wt %) was prepared by a situ-synthesis method. The effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone/reduced graphene oxide (PVP-rGO) on mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resin coating was investigated using nanoindentation technique and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. A significant enhancement (ca. 213% and 73 °C) in the Young modulus and thermal stability of epoxy resin coating was obtained at a loading of 0.7 wt %, respectively. Furthermore, the erosion resistance of graphene nanosheets-based epoxy resin coating was investigated by electrochemical measurement. The results showed also that the Rrcco (ca. 0.3 mm/year) of graphene nanosheets-based epoxy resin coating was far lower than neat epoxy resin (1.3 mm/year). Thus, this approach provides a novel route for improving erosion resistance and mechanical-thermal stability of polymers coating, which is expected to be used in mechanical-thermal-corrosion coupling environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Narrow-Ridged Finless Porpoise Renal Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Involved in Osmoregulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2220-2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012220
Received: 20 October 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During the evolutionary transition from land to water, cetaceans have undergone numerous critical challenges, with osmoregulation being the major one. Two subspecies of the narrow-ridged finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis), the freshwater Yangtze finless porpoise (N. a. asiaeorientalis, NAA) and
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During the evolutionary transition from land to water, cetaceans have undergone numerous critical challenges, with osmoregulation being the major one. Two subspecies of the narrow-ridged finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis), the freshwater Yangtze finless porpoise (N. a. asiaeorientalis, NAA) and the marine East Asian finless porpoise (N. a. sunameri, NAS), provide excellent subjects to understand the genetic basis of osmoregulatory divergence between freshwater and marine mammals. The kidney plays an important and well-established role in osmoregulation in marine mammals and thus, herein, we utilized RNA-seq to characterize the renal transcriptome and preliminarily analyze the divergence between the NAA and the NAS. Approximately 48.98 million clean reads from NAS and 49.40 million clean reads from NAA were obtained by RNA-Seq. And 73,449 (NAS) and 68,073 (NAA) unigenes were assembled. Among these annotations, 22,231 (NAS) and 21,849 (NAA) unigenes were annotated against the NCBI nr protein database. The ion channel complex GO term and four pathways were detected as relevant to osmoregulation by GO and KEGG pathway classification of these annotated unigenes. Although the endangered status of the study species prevented analysis of biological replicates, we identified nine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that may be vital in the osmoregulation of the narrow-ridged finless porpoise and worthwhile for future studies. Of these DEGs, the differential expression and distribution of the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the collecting duct were verified using immunohistochemical experiments. Together, this work is the first report of renal transcriptome sequencing in cetaceans, and it will provide a valuable resource for future molecular genetics studies on cetacean osmoregulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Analysis of Differentially-Expressed microRNAs in Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Infected PK-15 Cells with Deep Sequencing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2204-2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012204
Received: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne Flavivirus, causes acute viral encephalitis with high morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that are important modulators of the intricate host-pathogen interaction networks. However, our knowledge of the changes
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne Flavivirus, causes acute viral encephalitis with high morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that are important modulators of the intricate host-pathogen interaction networks. However, our knowledge of the changes that occur in miRNAs in host cells after JEV infection is still limited. To understand the molecular pathogenesis of JEV at the level of posttranscriptional regulation, we used Illumina deep sequencing to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from PK-15 cells before and after JEV infection. We identified 522 and 427 miRNAs in the infected and uninfected cells, respectively. Overall, 132 miRNAs were expressed significantly differently after challenge with JEV: 78 were upregulated and 54 downregulated. The sequencing results for selected miRNAs were confirmed with RT-qPCR. GO analysis of the host target genes revealed that these dysregulated miRNAs are involved in complex cellular pathways, including the metabolic pathway, inflammatory response and immune response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the comparative expression of miRNAs in PK-15 cells after JEV infection. Our findings will underpin further studies of miRNAs’ roles in JEV replication and identify potential candidates for antiviral therapies against JEV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessReview Experimental Confirmation of a Whole Set of tRNA Molecules in Two Archaeal Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2187-2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012187
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on the genomic sequences for most archaeal species, only one tRNA gene (isodecoder) is predicted for each triplet codon. This observation promotes analysis of a whole set of tRNA molecules and actual splicing patterns of interrupted tRNA in one organism. The entire
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Based on the genomic sequences for most archaeal species, only one tRNA gene (isodecoder) is predicted for each triplet codon. This observation promotes analysis of a whole set of tRNA molecules and actual splicing patterns of interrupted tRNA in one organism. The entire genomic sequences of two Creanarchaeota, Aeropyrum pernix and Sulfolobus tokodaii, were determined approximately 15 years ago. In these genome datasets, 47 and 46 tRNA genes were detected, respectively. Among them, 14 and 24 genes, respectively, were predicted to be interrupted tRNA genes. To confirm the actual transcription of these predicted tRNA genes and identify the actual splicing patterns of the predicted interrupted tRNA molecules, RNA samples were prepared from each archaeal species and used to synthesize cDNA molecules with tRNA sequence-specific primers. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of cDNA clones representing unspliced and spliced forms of interrupted tRNA molecules indicated that some introns were located at positions other than one base 3' from anticodon region and that bulge-helix-bulge structures were detected around the actual splicing sites in each interrupted tRNA molecule. Whole-set analyses of tRNA molecules revealed that the archaeal tRNA splicing mechanism may be essential for efficient splicing of all tRNAs produced from interrupted tRNA genes in these archaea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functions of Transfer RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle Transgenic Plants as Low-Cost Platform for Chemotherapeutic Drugs Screening
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2174-2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012174
Received: 30 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we explored the possibility of using genetically modified Arabidopsis thaliana plants as a rapid and low-cost screening tool for evaluating human anticancer drugs action and efficacy. Here, four different inhibitors with a validated anticancer effect in humans and distinct mechanism
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In this work we explored the possibility of using genetically modified Arabidopsis thaliana plants as a rapid and low-cost screening tool for evaluating human anticancer drugs action and efficacy. Here, four different inhibitors with a validated anticancer effect in humans and distinct mechanism of action were screened in the plant model for their ability to interfere with the cytoskeletal and endomembrane networks. We used plants expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged microtubule-protein (TUA6-GFP), and three soluble GFPs differently sorted to reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (GFPKDEL) or to accumulate in the vacuole through a COPII dependent (AleuGFP) or independent (GFPChi) mechanism. Our results demonstrated that drugs tested alone or in combination differentially influenced the monitored cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization and endomembrane trafficking. In conclusion, we demonstrated that A. thaliana plants are sensitive to the action of human chemotherapeutics and can be used for preliminary screening of drugs efficacy. The cost-effective subcellular imaging in plant cell may contribute to better clarify drugs subcellular targets and their anticancer effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization of a New Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Translocation Line with Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Stripe Rust
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2162-2173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012162
Received: 8 December 2014 / Revised: 7 January 2015 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line CH13-21 was selected from the progenies derived from a cross between wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7047 and wheat line Mianyang11. CH13-21 was characterized by using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), multicolor-GISH (mc-GISH), multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization
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A new wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line CH13-21 was selected from the progenies derived from a cross between wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7047 and wheat line Mianyang11. CH13-21 was characterized by using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), multicolor-GISH (mc-GISH), multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) and chromosome-specific molecular markers. When inoculated with stripe rust and powdery mildew isolates, CH13-21 displayed novel resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust which inherited from its Thinopyrum parent. The chromosomal counting analyses indicated that CH13-21 has 42 chromosomes, with normal bivalent pairing at metaphase I of meiosis. GISH probed by Th. intermedium genomic DNA showed that CH13-21 contained a pair of wheat-Th. intermedium translocated chromosomes. Sequential mc-FISH analyses probed by pSc119.2 and pAs1 clearly revealed that chromosome arm 6BS of CH13-21 was replaced by Thinopyrum chromatin in the translocation chromosome. The molecular markers analysis further confirmed that the introduced Th. intermedium chromatin in CH13-21 belonged to the long arm of homoeologous group 6 chromosome. Therefore, CH13-21 was a new T6BS.6Ai#1L compensating Robertsonian translocation line. It concludes that CH13-21 is a new genetic resource for wheat breeding programs providing novel variation for disease resistances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Unravelling Genes and Pathways Implicated in Working Memory of Schizophrenia in Han Chinese
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2145-2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012145
Received: 13 October 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Working memory deficit is the core neurocognitive disorder in schizophrenia patients. To identify the factors underlying working memory deficit in schizophrenia patients and to explore the implication of possible genes in the working memory using genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia, computerized delay-matching-to-sample
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Working memory deficit is the core neurocognitive disorder in schizophrenia patients. To identify the factors underlying working memory deficit in schizophrenia patients and to explore the implication of possible genes in the working memory using genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia, computerized delay-matching-to-sample (DMS) and whole genome genotyping data were obtained from 100 first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 healthy controls from the Mental Health Centre of the West China Hospital, Sichuan University. A composite score, delay-matching-to-sample total correct numbers (DMS-TC), was found to be significantly different between the patients and control. On associating quantitative DMS-TC with interactive variables of groups × genotype, one SNP (rs1411832), located downstream of YWHAZP5 in chromosome 10, was found to be associated with the working memory deficit in schizophrenia patients with lowest p-value (p = 2.02 × 10−7). ConsensusPathDB identified that genes with SNPs for which p values below the threshold of 5 × 10−5 were significantly enriched in GO:0007155 (cell adhesion, p < 0.001). This study indicates that working memory, as an endophenotype of schizophrenia, could improve the efficacy of GWAS in schizophrenia. However, further study is required to replicate the results from our study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Running Exercise Alleviates Pain and Promotes Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2130-2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012130
Received: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical
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Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls). The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Basis of Regeneration and Tissue Repair)
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Open AccessArticle Prevention of Osteoporosis by Oral Administration of Phytate-Removed and Deamidated Soybean β-Conglycinin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2117-2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012117
Received: 16 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phytate-removed and deamidated soybean β-conglycinin (PrDS) prepared by ion-exchange resins was supplemented to be 4% in the diet administered to ovariectomized rats to investigate its preventive effect on osteoporosis. The apparent calcium absorption rate decreased following ovariectomy and was not replenished by oral
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Phytate-removed and deamidated soybean β-conglycinin (PrDS) prepared by ion-exchange resins was supplemented to be 4% in the diet administered to ovariectomized rats to investigate its preventive effect on osteoporosis. The apparent calcium absorption rate decreased following ovariectomy and was not replenished by oral administration of phytate-removed soybean β-conglycinin (PrS) or casein. On the other hand, administration of PrDS restored the calcium absorption rate to the same level as the sham group. Markers of bone resorption, such as serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), increased, and the bone mineral density and breaking stress decreased following ovariectomy. However, PrDS supplementation suppressed the changes caused by the decrease in calcium absorption from the small intestine. Therefore, PrDS supplementation shows promise for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Proteins and Peptides Derived from Food)
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Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2099-2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012099
Received: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 118 | PDF Full-text (1416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general.
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Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2078-2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012078
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes.
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Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Open AccessArticle Variation and Genetic Structure in Platanus mexicana (Platanaceae) along Riparian Altitudinal Gradient
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2066-2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012066
Received: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian
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Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian species are scarce. In Mexico, the population of P. mexicana along the Colipa River (Veracruz State) grows below its reported minimum altitude range, possibly the lowest where this tree grows. This suggests that altitude might be an important factor in population genetics differentiation. We examined the genetic variation and population structuring at four sites with different altitudes (70, 200, 600 and 1700 m a.s.l.) using ten inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The highest value for Shannon index and Nei’s gene diversity was obtained at 1700 m a.s.l. (He = 0.27, Ne = 1.47, I = 0.42) and polymorphism reached the top value at the middle altitude (% p = 88.57). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and STRUCTURE analysis indicated intrapopulation genetic differentiation. The arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram identified 70 m a.s.l. as the most genetically distant site. The genetic structuring resulted from limited gene flow and genetic drift. This is the first report of genetic variation in populations of P. mexicana in Mexico. This research highlights its importance as a dominant species, and its ecological and evolutionary implications in altitudinal gradients of riparian ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of Six AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Genes in Chrysanthemum nankingense
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2052-2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012052
Received: 19 November 2014 / Revised: 12 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The AP2/ERF family of plant transcription factors (TFs) regulate a variety of developmental and physiological processes. Here, we report the isolation of six AP2/ERF TF family genes from Chrysanthemum nankingense. On the basis of sequence similarity, one of these belonged to the Ethylene
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The AP2/ERF family of plant transcription factors (TFs) regulate a variety of developmental and physiological processes. Here, we report the isolation of six AP2/ERF TF family genes from Chrysanthemum nankingense. On the basis of sequence similarity, one of these belonged to the Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF) subfamily and the other five to the Dehydration Responsive Element Binding protein (DREB) subfamily. A transient expression experiment showed that all six AP2/ERF proteins localized to the nucleus. A yeast-one hybrid assay demonstrated that CnDREB1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 all function as transactivators, while CnERF1, CnDREB3-1 and 3-2 have no transcriptional activation ability. The transcription response of the six TFs in response to wounding, salinity and low temperature stress and treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) showed that CnERF1 was up-regulated by wounding and low temperature stress but suppressed by salinity stress. The transcription of CnDREB1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 was down-regulated by ABA and JA to varying degrees. CnDREB3-1 and 3-2 was moderately increased or decreased by wounding and SA treatment, suppressed by salinity stress and JA treatment, and enhanced by low temperature stress and ABA treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Synthesis of a Maghemite/Gold Hybrid Nanoparticle System as a Magnetic Carrier for the Transport of Platinum-Based Metallotherapeutics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2034-2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012034
Received: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The preparation and thorough characterization of a hybrid magnetic carrier system for the possible transport of activated platinum-based anticancer drugs, as demonstrated for cisplatin (cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2], CDDP), are described. The final functionalized mag/Au–LA–CDDP* system consists of
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The preparation and thorough characterization of a hybrid magnetic carrier system for the possible transport of activated platinum-based anticancer drugs, as demonstrated for cisplatin (cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2], CDDP), are described. The final functionalized mag/Au–LA–CDDP* system consists of maghemite/gold nanoparticles (mag/Au) coated by lipoic acid (HLA; LA stands for deprotonated form of lipoic acid) and functionalized by activated cisplatin in the form of cis-[Pt(NH3)2(H2O)2]2+ (CDDP*). The relevant techniques (XPS, EDS, ICP-MS) proved the incorporation of the platinum-containing species on the surface of the studied hybrid system. HRTEM, TEM and SEM images showed the nanoparticles as spherical with an average size of 12 nm, while their superparamagnetic feature was proven by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the case of mag/Au, mag/Au–HLA and mag/Au–LA–CDDP*, weaker magnetic interactions among the Fe3+ centers of maghemite, as compared to maghemite nanoparticles (mag), were detected, which can be associated with the non-covalent coating of the maghemite surface by gold. The pH and time-dependent stability of the mag/Au–LA–CDDP* system in different media, represented by acetate (pH 5.0), phosphate (pH 7.0) and carbonate (pH 9.0) buffers and connected with the release of the platinum-containing species, showed the ability of CDDP* to be released from the functionalized nanosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2014)
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