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Special Issue "Artificial Organs"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Material Sciences and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alexander M. Seifalian (Website)

UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, University College London, London, UK
Guest Editor
Dr. Aaron Tan (Website)

1. UCL Medical School, University College London, London, UK
2. Biomaterials & Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, California, USA
Guest Editor
Dr. Yasmin Farhatnia

UCL Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, University College London, London, UK

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of bioengineered materials for medical applications is moving at an ever-increasing pace. This is evident in the proliferation of journals dedicated to biomaterials, nanotechnology, and regenerative medicine. Furthermore, the exponential rate at which research articles are published pertaining to these subjects, attests to the significance of this field. One of the holy grails of medicine and surgery is the replacement of damaged or diseased organs with artificially engineered ones. The development of artificial organs is a multi-disciplinary undertaking, bringing together both scientists and clinicians in their respective areas of expertise. In this Special Issue, we aim to showcase research at the interface of molecular science and regenerative therapies. We therefore invite you to submit your manuscript for this Special Issue entitled Artificial Organs.

Prof. Alexander M. Seifalian
Dr. Aaron Tan
Dr. Yasmin Farhatnia
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • artificial organs
  • regenerative medicine
  • biomaterials
  • nanotechnology
  • stem cells
  • bioengineering
  • surgery
  • nanomedicine
  • drug delivery
  • theranostics

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Selective Laser Melted Titanium and Magnesium Implants Coated with PCL
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 13287-13301; doi:10.3390/ijms160613287
Received: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Degradable implant material for bone remodeling that corresponds to the physiological stability of bone has still not been developed. Promising degradable materials with good mechanical properties are magnesium and magnesium alloys. However, excessive gas production due to corrosion can lower the biocompatibility. [...] Read more.
Degradable implant material for bone remodeling that corresponds to the physiological stability of bone has still not been developed. Promising degradable materials with good mechanical properties are magnesium and magnesium alloys. However, excessive gas production due to corrosion can lower the biocompatibility. In the present study we used the polymer coating polycaprolactone (PCL), intended to lower the corrosion rate of magnesium. Additionally, improvement of implant geometry can increase bone remodeling. Porous structures are known to support vessel ingrowth and thus increase osseointegration. With the selective laser melting (SLM) process, defined open porous structures can be created. Recently, highly reactive magnesium has also been processed by SLM. We performed studies with a flat magnesium layer and with porous magnesium implants coated with polymers. The SLM produced magnesium was compared with the titanium alloy TiAl6V4, as titanium is already established for the SLM-process. For testing the biocompatibility, we used primary murine osteoblasts. Results showed a reduced corrosion rate and good biocompatibility of the SLM produced magnesium with PCL coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Electrospun Gelatin Fibers Alignment on Schwann Cell and Axon Behavior and Organization in the Perspective of Artificial Nerve Design
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 12925-12942; doi:10.3390/ijms160612925
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrospun fibrous substrates mimicking extracellular matrices can be prepared by electrospinning, yielding aligned fibrous matrices as internal fillers to manufacture artificial nerves. Gelatin aligned nano-fibers were prepared by electrospinning after tuning the collector rotation speed. The effect of alignment on cell adhesion [...] Read more.
Electrospun fibrous substrates mimicking extracellular matrices can be prepared by electrospinning, yielding aligned fibrous matrices as internal fillers to manufacture artificial nerves. Gelatin aligned nano-fibers were prepared by electrospinning after tuning the collector rotation speed. The effect of alignment on cell adhesion and proliferation was tested in vitro using primary cultures, the Schwann cell line, RT4-D6P2T, and the sensory neuron-like cell line, 50B11. Cell adhesion and proliferation were assessed by quantifying at several time-points. Aligned nano-fibers reduced adhesion and proliferation rate compared with random fibers. Schwann cell morphology and organization were investigated by immunostaining of the cytoskeleton. Cells were elongated with their longitudinal body parallel to the aligned fibers. B5011 neuron-like cells were aligned and had parallel axon growth when cultured on the aligned gelatin fibers. The data show that the alignment of electrospun gelatin fibers can modulate Schwann cells and axon organization in vitro, suggesting that this substrate shows promise as an internal filler for the design of artificial nerves for peripheral nerve reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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Open AccessArticle SLM Produced Porous Titanium Implant Improvements for Enhanced Vascularization and Osteoblast Seeding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7478-7492; doi:10.3390/ijms16047478
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2057 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To improve well-known titanium implants, pores can be used for increasing bone formation and close bone-implant interface. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables the production of any geometry and was used for implant production with 250-µm pore size. The used pore size supports [...] Read more.
To improve well-known titanium implants, pores can be used for increasing bone formation and close bone-implant interface. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables the production of any geometry and was used for implant production with 250-µm pore size. The used pore size supports vessel ingrowth, as bone formation is strongly dependent on fast vascularization. Additionally, proangiogenic factors promote implant vascularization. To functionalize the titanium with proangiogenic factors, polycaprolactone (PCL) coating can be used. The following proangiogenic factors were examined: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12). As different surfaces lead to different cell reactions, titanium and PCL coating were compared. The growing into the porous titanium structure of primary osteoblasts was examined by cross sections. Primary osteoblasts seeded on the different surfaces were compared using Live Cell Imaging (LCI). Cross sections showed cells had proliferated, but not migrated after seven days. Although the cell count was lower on titanium PCL implants in LCI, the cell count and cell spreading area development showed promising results for titanium PCL implants. HMGB1 showed the highest migration capacity for stimulating the endothelial cell line. Future perspective would be the incorporation of HMGB1 into PCL polymer for the realization of a slow factor release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
Open AccessArticle A Hyaluronan-Based Scaffold for the in Vitro Construction of Dental Pulp-Like Tissue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4666-4681; doi:10.3390/ijms16034666
Received: 22 December 2014 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method [...] Read more.
Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D) hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF) staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Abnormal Extracellular Matrix in the Interstitium of Regenerating Renal Tubules
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23240-23254; doi:10.3390/ijms151223240
Received: 16 October 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (16087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was [...] Read more.
Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz’s L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Natural Neural Scaffolds Consisting of Engineered Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Immobilized on Ordered Collagen Fibers Filled in a Collagen Tube for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18593-18609; doi:10.3390/ijms151018593
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The search for effective strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, ordered collagen fibers were used as intraluminal fibers after nerve injury in rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in [...] Read more.
The search for effective strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, ordered collagen fibers were used as intraluminal fibers after nerve injury in rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in nerve regeneration, but its very fast initial burst of activity within a short time has largely limited its clinical use. For the stable binding of VEGF to ordered collagen fibers, we fused a collagen-binding domain (CBD) to VEGF through recombinant DNA technology. Then, we filled the ordered collagen fibers-CBD-VEGF targeting delivery system in a collagen tube to construct natural neural scaffolds, which were then used to bridge transected nerve stumps in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. After transplantation, the natural neural scaffolds showed minimal foreign body reactions and good integration into the host tissue. Oriented collagen fibers in the collagen tube could guide regenerating axons in an oriented manner to the distal, degenerating nerve segment, maximizing the chance of target reinnervation. Functional and histological analyses indicated that the recovery of nerve function in the natural neural scaffolds-treated group was superior to the other grafted groups. The guiding of oriented axonal regeneration and effective delivery systems surmounting the otherwise rapid and short-lived diffusion of growth factors in body fluids are two important strategies in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. The natural neural scaffolds described take advantage of these two aspects and may produce synergistic effects. These properties qualified the artificial nerve conduits as a putative candidate system for the fabrication of peripheral nerve reconstruction devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
Open AccessArticle Liquid Phase Sintered Ceramic Bone Scaffolds by Combined Laser and Furnace
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 14574-14590; doi:10.3390/ijms150814574
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (19359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fabrication of mechanically competent bioactive scaffolds is a great challenge in bone tissue engineering. In this paper, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were successfully fabricated by selective laser sintering combined with furnace sintering. Bioglass 45S5 was introduced in the process as liquid phase [...] Read more.
Fabrication of mechanically competent bioactive scaffolds is a great challenge in bone tissue engineering. In this paper, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were successfully fabricated by selective laser sintering combined with furnace sintering. Bioglass 45S5 was introduced in the process as liquid phase in order to improve the mechanical and biological properties. The results showed that sintering of β-TCP with the bioglass revealed some features of liquid phase sintering. The optimum amount of 45S5 was 5 wt %. At this point, the scaffolds were densified without defects. The fracture toughness, compressive strength and stiffness were 1.67 MPam1/2, 21.32 MPa and 264.32 MPa, respectively. Bone like apatite layer was formed and the stimulation for apatite formation was increased with increase in 45S5 content after soaking in simulated body fluid, which indicated that 45S5 could improve the bioactivity. Furthermore, MG-63 cells adhered and spread well, and proliferated with increase in the culture time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Multi-Functional Macromers for Hydrogel Design in Biomedical Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27677-27706; doi:10.3390/ijms161126056
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 31 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contemporary biomaterials are expected to provide tailored mechanical, biological and structural cues to encapsulated or invading cells in regenerative applications. In addition, the degradative properties of the material also have to be adjustable to the desired application. Oligo- or polymeric building blocks [...] Read more.
Contemporary biomaterials are expected to provide tailored mechanical, biological and structural cues to encapsulated or invading cells in regenerative applications. In addition, the degradative properties of the material also have to be adjustable to the desired application. Oligo- or polymeric building blocks that can be further cross-linked into hydrogel networks, here addressed as macromers, appear as the prime option to assemble gels with the necessary degrees of freedom in the adjustment of the mentioned key parameters. Recent developments in the design of multi-functional macromers with two or more chemically different types of functionalities are summarized and discussed in this review illustrating recent trends in the development of advanced hydrogel building blocks for regenerative applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
Open AccessReview Direct Reprogramming—The Future of Cardiac Regeneration?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17368-17393; doi:10.3390/ijms160817368
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today, the only available curative therapy for end stage congestive heart failure (CHF) is heart transplantation. This therapeutic option is strongly limited by declining numbers of available donor hearts and by restricted long-term performance of the transplanted graft. The disastrous prognosis for [...] Read more.
Today, the only available curative therapy for end stage congestive heart failure (CHF) is heart transplantation. This therapeutic option is strongly limited by declining numbers of available donor hearts and by restricted long-term performance of the transplanted graft. The disastrous prognosis for CHF with its restricted therapeutic options has led scientists to develop different concepts of alternative regenerative treatment strategies including stem cell transplantation or stimulating cell proliferation of different cardiac cell types in situ. However, first clinical trials with overall inconsistent results were not encouraging, particularly in terms of functional outcome. Among other approaches, very promising ongoing pre-clinical research focuses on direct lineage conversion of scar fibroblasts into functional myocardium, termed “direct reprogramming” or “transdifferentiation.” This review seeks to summarize strategies for direct cardiac reprogramming including the application of different sets of transcription factors, microRNAs, and small molecules for an efficient generation of cardiomyogenic cells for regenerative purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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Open AccessReview Encapsulated Cellular Implants for Recombinant Protein Delivery and Therapeutic Modulation of the Immune System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10578-10600; doi:10.3390/ijms160510578
Received: 11 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ex vivo gene therapy using retrievable encapsulated cellular implants is an effective strategy for the local and/or chronic delivery of therapeutic proteins. In particular, it is considered an innovative approach to modulate the activity of the immune system. Two recently proposed therapeutic [...] Read more.
Ex vivo gene therapy using retrievable encapsulated cellular implants is an effective strategy for the local and/or chronic delivery of therapeutic proteins. In particular, it is considered an innovative approach to modulate the activity of the immune system. Two recently proposed therapeutic schemes using genetically engineered encapsulated cells are discussed here: the chronic administration of monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization against neurodegenerative diseases and the local delivery of a cytokine as an adjuvant for anti-cancer vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
Open AccessReview MicroRNAs Regulate Bone Development and Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8227-8253; doi:10.3390/ijms16048227
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small noncoding ~22-nt RNAs, which have been reported to play a crucial role in maintaining bone development and metabolism. Osteogenesis originates from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiating into mature osteoblasts and each period of bone formation is inseparable [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small noncoding ~22-nt RNAs, which have been reported to play a crucial role in maintaining bone development and metabolism. Osteogenesis originates from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiating into mature osteoblasts and each period of bone formation is inseparable from the delicate regulation of various miRNAs. Of note, apprehending the sophisticated circuit between miRNAs and osteogenic homeostasis is of great value for artificial skeletal regeneration for severe bone defects. In this review, we highlight how different miRNAs interact with diverse osteo-related genes and endeavor to sketch the contours of potential manipulations of miRNA-modulated bone repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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Open AccessReview Accelerating in Situ Endothelialisation of Cardiovascular Bypass Grafts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 597-627; doi:10.3390/ijms16010597
Received: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The patency of synthetic cardiovascular grafts in the long run is synonymous with their ability to inhibit the processes of intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis and calcification. In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes. As such [...] Read more.
The patency of synthetic cardiovascular grafts in the long run is synonymous with their ability to inhibit the processes of intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis and calcification. In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes. As such it is not surprising that research in tissue engineering is directed towards replicating the functionality of the natural endothelium in cardiovascular grafts. This can be done either by seeding the endothelium within the lumen of the grafts prior to implantation or by designing the graft such that in situ endothelialisation takes place after implantation. Due to certain difficulties identified with in vitro endothelialisation, in situ endothelialisation, which will be the focus of this article, has garnered interest in the last years. To promote in situ endothelialisation, the following aspects can be taken into account: (1) Endothelial progenital cell mobilization, adhesion and proliferation; (2) Regulating differentiation of progenitor cells to mature endothelium; (3) Preventing thrombogenesis and inflammation during endothelialisation. This article aims to review and compile recent developments to promote the in situ endothelialisation of cardiovascular grafts and subsequently improve their patency, which can also have widespread implications in the field of tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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Open AccessReview Recent Developments in β-Cell Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced by Small and Large Molecules
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23418-23447; doi:10.3390/ijms151223418
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules [...] Read more.
Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate) and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α), and WNT3A) are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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Open AccessReview Development of 3D in Vitro Technology for Medical Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 17938-17962; doi:10.3390/ijms151017938
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 8 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could [...] Read more.
In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
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