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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23501-23518; doi:10.3390/ijms151223501

TXNDC5, a Newly Discovered Disulfide Isomerase with a Key Role in Cell Physiology and Pathology

1
Grado de Biotecnología, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza E-50013, Spain
2
Departamento Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IIS), Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza E-50013, Spain
3
CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid E-28029, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
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Abstract

Thioredoxin domain-containing 5 (TXNDC5) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, acting as a chaperone of endoplasmic reticulum under not fully characterized conditions As a result, TXNDC5 interacts with many cell proteins, contributing to their proper folding and correct formation of disulfide bonds through its thioredoxin domains. Moreover, it can also work as an electron transfer reaction, recovering the functional isoform of other protein disulfide isomerases, replacing reduced glutathione in its role. Finally, it also acts as a cellular adapter, interacting with the N-terminal domain of adiponectin receptor. As can be inferred from all these functions, TXNDC5 plays an important role in cell physiology; therefore, dysregulation of its expression is associated with oxidative stress, cell ageing and a large range of pathologies such as arthritis, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, vitiligo and virus infections. Its implication in all these important diseases has made TXNDC5 a susceptible biomarker or even a potential pharmacological target. View Full-Text
Keywords: thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5); protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); endoplasmic reticulum 46 (Erp46); PDI15; thioredoxin-related protein in the cell plasma (PC-TRP); endo PDI thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5); protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); endoplasmic reticulum 46 (Erp46); PDI15; thioredoxin-related protein in the cell plasma (PC-TRP); endo PDI
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Horna-Terrón, E.; Pradilla-Dieste, A.; Sánchez-de-Diego, C.; Osada, J. TXNDC5, a Newly Discovered Disulfide Isomerase with a Key Role in Cell Physiology and Pathology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 23501-23518.

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