Next Article in Journal
From End to End: tRNA Editing at 5'- and 3'-Terminal Positions
Next Article in Special Issue
The Role of Autophagy as a Mechanism of Toxicity Induced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Human Lung Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Lung Injury Induced by TiO2 Nanoparticles Depends on Their Structural Features: Size, Shape, Crystal Phases, and Surface Coating
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23936-23974; doi:10.3390/ijms151223936

Inhalation of Silver Nanomaterials—Seeing the Risks

1
Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK
2
National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Cale Street, London SW3 6LY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Lung Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4802 KB, uploaded 22 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Demand for silver engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is increasing rapidly in optoelectronic and in health and medical applications due to their antibacterial, thermal, electrical conductive, and other properties. The continued commercial up-scaling of ENM production and application needs to be accompanied by an understanding of the occupational health, public safety and environmental implications of these materials. There have been numerous in vitro studies and some in vivo studies of ENM toxicity but their results are frequently inconclusive. Some of the variability between studies has arisen due to a lack of consistency between experimental models, since small differences between test materials can markedly alter their behaviour. In addition, the propensity for the physicochemistry of silver ENMs to alter, sometimes quite radically, depending on the environment they encounter, can profoundly alter their bioreactivity. Consequently, it is important to accurately characterise the materials before use, at the point of exposure and at the nanomaterial-tissue, or “nanobio”, interface, to be able to appreciate their environmental impact. This paper reviews current literature on the pulmonary effects of silver nanomaterials. We focus our review on describing whether, and by which mechanisms, the chemistry and structure of these materials can be linked to their bioreactivity in the respiratory system. In particular, the mechanisms by which the physicochemical properties (e.g., aggregation state, morphology and chemistry) of silver nanomaterials change in various biological milieu (i.e., relevant proteins, lipids and other molecules, and biofluids, such as lung surfactant) and affect subsequent interactions with and within cells will be discussed, in the context not only of what is measured but also of what can be visualized. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver nanomaterials; lung; toxicity; characterization; imaging; pulmonary surfactant silver nanomaterials; lung; toxicity; characterization; imaging; pulmonary surfactant
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Theodorou, I.G.; Ryan, M.P.; Tetley, T.D.; Porter, A.E. Inhalation of Silver Nanomaterials—Seeing the Risks. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 23936-23974.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top