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Special Issue "Laser Application in Life Sciences"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Herbert Schneckenburger (Website)

Institute of Applied Research, Aalen University, Beethovenstr. 1, 73430 Aalen, Germany
Phone: +49 7361 576-3401
Interests: biomedical optics; microscopy; fluorescence; FRET
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Raimund Hibst (Website)

Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Meßtechnik an der, Universität Ulm, Helmholtzstraße 12, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Interests: optics; photonics; medicine; dental; metrology; quality control
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rudolf Steiner (Website)

Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik an der Universität Ulm, Helmholtzstr. 12, DE-89081, Ulm, Germany
Phone: +49 731 1429888
Interests: laser-tissue interaction; PDT; laser therapy; optical medical diagnostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is related to the International Conference on Laser Applications in Life Sciences (LALS 2014; see http://lals2014.ilm-ulm.de), which follows a series of biannual conferences and which will take place in the period from June 29th to July 2nd 2014 in Ulm/Neu-Ulm (Germany). In agreement with the main topics of the conference, this issue is focused on the fields of Biomedical Imaging, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser-Tissue Interactions, Light Microscopy, Nano-Biophotonics, Novel Optical Devices, and Clinical Laser Applications. All speakers presenting a paper at LALS 2014 are invited to submit a manuscript for publication. Regular submissions are also welcomed in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Herbert Schneckenburger
Prof. Dr. Raimund Hibst
Prof. Dr. Rudolf Steiner
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • biomedical imaging
  • laser spectroscopy
  • laser-tissue interactions
  • light microscopy
  • nano-biophotonics
  • novel optical devices
  • clinical laser applications

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Instrumentation on Multi-Scaled Scattering of Bio-Macromolecular Solutions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10016-10037; doi:10.3390/ijms160510016
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 4 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design, construction and initial tests on a combined laser light scattering and synchrotron X-ray scattering instrument can cover studies of length scales from atomic sizes in Angstroms to microns and dynamics from microseconds to seconds are presented. In addition to static [...] Read more.
The design, construction and initial tests on a combined laser light scattering and synchrotron X-ray scattering instrument can cover studies of length scales from atomic sizes in Angstroms to microns and dynamics from microseconds to seconds are presented. In addition to static light scattering (SLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), the light scattering instrument is being developed to carry out studies in mildly turbid solutions, in the presence of multiple scattering. Three-dimensional photon cross correlation function (3D-PCCF) measurements have been introduced to couple with synchrotron X-ray scattering to study the structure, size and dynamics of macromolecules in solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Application of Single Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy to Characterize the Penetration of a Large Amphiphilic Molecule in the Stratum Corneum of Human Skin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 6960-6977; doi:10.3390/ijms16046960
Received: 15 December 2014 / Revised: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report here on the application of laser-based single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to study the penetration of molecules through the skin. Penetration of topically applied drug molecules is often observed to be limited by the size of the [...] Read more.
We report here on the application of laser-based single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to study the penetration of molecules through the skin. Penetration of topically applied drug molecules is often observed to be limited by the size of the respective drug. However, the molecular mechanisms which govern the penetration of molecules through the outermost layer of the skin are still largely unknown. As a model compound we have chosen a larger amphiphilic molecule (fluorescent dye ATTO-Oxa12) with a molecular weight >700 Da that was applied to excised human skin. ATTO-Oxa12 penetrated through the stratum corneum (SC) into the viable epidermis as revealed by TIRFM of cryosections. Single particle tracking of ATTO-Oxa12 within SC sheets obtained by tape stripping allowed us to gain information on the localization as well as the lateral diffusion dynamics of these molecules. ATTO-Oxa12 appeared to be highly confined in the SC lipid region between (intercellular space) or close to the envelope of the corneocytes. Three main distinct confinement sizes of 52 ± 6, 118 ± 4, and 205 ± 5 nm were determined. We conclude that for this amphiphilic model compound several pathways through the skin exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences)
Open AccessArticle ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Biochemical Changes in Skin Due to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 6621-6630; doi:10.3390/ijms16046621
Received: 15 December 2014 / Revised: 18 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 24 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical [...] Read more.
Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical changes in normal skin caused by squamous cell carcinoma induced by multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Changes in the absorption intensities and shifts were observed in the vibrational modes associated to proteins, indicating changes in secondary conformation in the neoplastic tissue. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of the technique to differentiate the spectra of neoplastic and normal skin tissue, so that the accuracy obtained for this classification was 86.4%. In this sense, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful tool to complement histopathological analysis in the clinical routine for the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences)
Open AccessArticle Ultrasensitive Imaging of Ca2+ Dynamics in Pancreatic Acinar Cells of Yellow Cameleon-Nano Transgenic Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 19971-19986; doi:10.3390/ijms151119971
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 3 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Yellow Cameleons are genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators in which cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins and calmodulin work together as a fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer Ca2+-sensor probe. To achieve ultrasensitive Ca2+ imaging for low resting Ca2+ or [...] Read more.
Yellow Cameleons are genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators in which cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins and calmodulin work together as a fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer Ca2+-sensor probe. To achieve ultrasensitive Ca2+ imaging for low resting Ca2+ or small Ca2+ transients in various organs, we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing the highest-sensitive genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator (Yellow Cameleon-Nano 15) in the whole body. We then focused on the mechanism of exocytotic events mediated by intracellular Ca2+ signaling in acinar cells of the mice with an agonist and observed them by two-photon excitation microscopy. In the results, two-photon excitation imaging of Yellow Cameleon-Nano 15 successfully visualized intracellular Ca2+ concentration under stimulation with the agonist at nanomolar levels. This is the first demonstration for application of genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators to pancreatic acinar cells. We also simultaneously observed exocytotic events and an intracellular Ca2+ concentration under in vivo condition. Yellow Cameleon-Nano 15 mice are healthy and no significant deteriorative effect was observed on physiological response regarding the pancreatic acinar cells. The dynamic range of 165% was calculated from Rmax and Rmin values under in vivo condition. The mice will be useful for ultrasensitive Ca2+ imaging in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Contrast Agents for Photoacoustic and Thermoacoustic Imaging: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23616-23639; doi:10.3390/ijms151223616
Received: 18 October 2014 / Revised: 18 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) are two emerging biomedical imaging techniques that both utilize ultrasonic signals as an information carrier. Unique advantages of PAI and TAI are their abilities to provide high resolution functional information such as hemoglobin and blood [...] Read more.
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) are two emerging biomedical imaging techniques that both utilize ultrasonic signals as an information carrier. Unique advantages of PAI and TAI are their abilities to provide high resolution functional information such as hemoglobin and blood oxygenation and tissue dielectric properties relevant to physiology and pathology. These two methods, however, may have a limited detection depth and lack of endogenous contrast. An exogenous contrast agent is often needed to effectively resolve these problems. Such agents are able to greatly enhance the imaging contrast and potentially break through the imaging depth limit. Furthermore, a receptor-targeted contrast agent could trace the molecular and cellular biological processes in tissues. Thus, photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging can be outstanding tools for early diagnosis, precise lesion localization, and molecular typing of various diseases. The agents also could be used for therapy in conjugation with drugs or in photothermal therapy, where it functions as an enhancer for the integration of diagnosis and therapy. In this article, we present a detailed review about various exogenous contrast agents for photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging. In addition, challenges and future directions of photoacoustic and thermoacoustic molecular imaging in the field of translational medicine are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessShort Note Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23924-23935; doi:10.3390/ijms151223924
Received: 29 November 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the [...] Read more.
Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to individual strains (two biofilm-positive and two biofilm-negative) could be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences)

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