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Molecules, Volume 22, Issue 5 (May 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The fluorescent chemical probe PDI-1 was designed for strong binding and quantification of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Development of Optimized Inhibitor RNAs Allowing Multisite-Targeting of the HCV Genome
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050861
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Engineered multivalent drugs are promising candidates for fighting infection by highly variable viruses, such as HCV. The combination into a single molecule of more than one inhibitory domain, each with its own target specificity and even a different mechanism of action, results in
[...] Read more.
Engineered multivalent drugs are promising candidates for fighting infection by highly variable viruses, such as HCV. The combination into a single molecule of more than one inhibitory domain, each with its own target specificity and even a different mechanism of action, results in drugs with potentially enhanced therapeutic properties. In the present work, the anti-HCV chimeric inhibitor RNA HH363-10, which has a hammerhead catalytic domain and an aptamer RNA domain, was subjected to an in vitro selection strategy to isolate ten different optimised chimeric inhibitor RNAs. The catalytic domain was preserved while the aptamer RNA domain was evolved to contain two binding sites, one mapping to the highly conserved IIIf domain of the HCV genome’s internal ribosome entry site (IRES), and the other either to IRES domain IV (which contains the translation start codon) or the essential linker region between domains I and II. These chimeric molecules efficiently and specifically interfered with HCV IRES-dependent translation in vitro (with IC50 values in the low µM range). They also inhibited both viral translation and replication in cell culture. These findings highlight the feasibility of using in vitro selection strategies for obtaining improved RNA molecules with potential clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Oligonucleotide Conjugates)
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Open AccessArticle CTAB-Assisted Fabrication of Bi2WO6 Thin Nanoplates with High Adsorption and Enhanced Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050859
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two-dimensional thin Bi2WO6 nanoplates have been fabricated using a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted hydrothermal method. We investigated the proposed formation mechanism based on the crystalline structures of the thin Bi2WO6 nanoplates. The high adsorption ability and excellent visible-light
[...] Read more.
Two-dimensional thin Bi2WO6 nanoplates have been fabricated using a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted hydrothermal method. We investigated the proposed formation mechanism based on the crystalline structures of the thin Bi2WO6 nanoplates. The high adsorption ability and excellent visible-light driven photocatalytic activities of the Bi2WO6 nanoplates were illustrated, in view of exposed (001) facets of nanoplates possessing faster separation of photo-generated charge carriers and increased catalytically active sites. Such a cost-effective way to obtain Bi2WO6 nanoplates offers new possibilities for the design of adsorptive semiconductor photocatalysts with strengthened photocatalytic activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications)
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Open AccessReview Applications of Gold Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine: Recent Advances in Vaccines
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050857
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, gold is used in (nano-)medicine, usually in the form of nanoparticles, due to the solid proofs given of its therapeutic effects on several diseases. Gold also plays an important role in the vaccine field as an adjuvant and a carrier, reducing toxicity,
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, gold is used in (nano-)medicine, usually in the form of nanoparticles, due to the solid proofs given of its therapeutic effects on several diseases. Gold also plays an important role in the vaccine field as an adjuvant and a carrier, reducing toxicity, enhancing immunogenic activity, and providing stability in storage. An even brighter golden future is expected for gold applications in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Constrained Geometry Oxygen and Sulphur Functionalized Cyclopentadienylchromium Complexes and Their Use in Catalysis for Olefin Polymerization
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050856
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
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Abstract
A series of constrained geometry O-functionalized cyclopentadienylchromium complexes (16) and a S-functionalized cyclopentadienylchromium complex (7) were first synthesized, characterized, and tested as catalyst precursors for the olefin polymerization. In the presence of MAO, the complexes exhibited high
[...] Read more.
A series of constrained geometry O-functionalized cyclopentadienylchromium complexes (16) and a S-functionalized cyclopentadienylchromium complex (7) were first synthesized, characterized, and tested as catalyst precursors for the olefin polymerization. In the presence of MAO, the complexes exhibited high catalytic activity for the polymerization of ethylene. It is shown that ligand variations can have a substantial effect on catalyst activity and stability. The effect of Al/Cr ratio on catalytic activity was also studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organometallic Catalysis for Olefin Polymerization/Oligomerization)
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Open AccessArticle A 4-Phenoxyphenol Derivative Exerts Inhibitory Effects on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through Regulating Autophagy and Apoptosis Accompanied by Downregulating α-Tubulin Expression
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050854
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cancer worldwide. Advanced HCCs are usually resistant to anticancer drugs, causing unsatisfactory chemotherapy outcomes. In this study, we showed that a 4-phenoxyphenol derivative, 4-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)phenoxy]phenol (4-HPPP), exerts an inhibitory activity against two HCC cell lines, Huh7 and Ha22T.
[...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cancer worldwide. Advanced HCCs are usually resistant to anticancer drugs, causing unsatisfactory chemotherapy outcomes. In this study, we showed that a 4-phenoxyphenol derivative, 4-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)phenoxy]phenol (4-HPPP), exerts an inhibitory activity against two HCC cell lines, Huh7 and Ha22T. We further investigated the anti-HCC activities of 4-HPPP, including anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Our results showed that higher dosage of 4-HPPP downregulates the expression of α-tubulin and causes nuclear enlargement in both the Huh-7 and Ha22T cell lines. Interestingly, the colony formation results showed a discrepancy in the inhibitory effect of 4-HPPP on HCC and rat liver epithelial Clone 9 cells, suggesting the selective cytotoxicity of 4-HPPP toward HCC cells. Furthermore, the cell proliferation and apoptosis assay results illustrated the differences between the two HCC cell lines. The results of cellular proliferation assays, including trypan blue exclusion and colony formation, revealed that 4-HPPP inhibits the growth of Huh7 cells, but exerts less cytotoxicity in Ha22T cells. Furthermore, the annexin V assay performed for detecting the apoptosis showed similar results. Western blotting results showed 4-HPPP caused the increase of pro-apoptotic factors including cleaved caspase-3, Bid and Bax in HCC cells, especially in Huh-7. Furthermore, an increase of autophagy-associated protein microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B)-II and the decrease of Beclin-1 and p62/SQSTM1 were observed following 4-HPPP treatment. Additionally, the level of γH2A histone family, member X (γH2AX), an endogenous DNA damage biomarker, was dramatically increased in Huh7 cells after 4-HPPP treatment, suggesting the involvement of DNA damage pathway in 4-HPPP-induced apoptosis. On the contrary, the western blotting results showed that treatment up-regulates pro-survival proteins, including the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and the level of survivin on Ha22T cells, which may confer a resistance toward 4-HPPP. Notably, the blockade of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), but not Akt, enhanced the cytotoxicity of 4-HPPP against Ha22T cells, indicating the pro-survival role of ERK in 4-HPPP-induced anti-HCC effect. Our present work suggests that selective anti-HCC activity of 4-HPPP acts through induction of DNA damage. Accordingly, the combination of ERK inhibitor may significantly enhance the anti-cancer effect of 4-HPPP for those HCC cells which overexpress ERK in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tubulin Inhibitors)
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Seven Saskatoon Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) Genotypes Grown in Poland
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050853
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (973 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The basic chemical composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity of fruits of three new Polish breeding clones (No. 5/6, type S, and type N) and four Canadian cultivars (cvs.) (“Martin”, “Smoky”, “Pembina”, and “Honeywood”) grown in Poland in 2016 were investigated. Fruits were
[...] Read more.
The basic chemical composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity of fruits of three new Polish breeding clones (No. 5/6, type S, and type N) and four Canadian cultivars (cvs.) (“Martin”, “Smoky”, “Pembina”, and “Honeywood”) grown in Poland in 2016 were investigated. Fruits were analyzed for their contents of triterpenoids, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and polyphenolics with the ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode detector-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS) method, sugar with the high-performance liquid chromatography–evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method, and antioxidant capacity with the ability to reduce free radical (ABTS) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method. Thirty-eight bioactive compounds, including twenty-eight polyphenolic compounds (four anthocyanins, nine phenolic acids, nine flavonols, and seven flavan-3-ols), four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three triterpenoids were identified in the fruits. The fruits of the tested Saskatoon berry genotypes were found to be rich in phenolic compounds (3773.94–6390.36 mg/100 g·dm), triterpenoids (66.55–91.31 mg/kg·dm), and carotenoids (478.62–561.57 mg/kg·dm), with high ABTS and FRAP capacity (10.38–34.49 and 9.66–25.34 mmol·Trolox/100 g·dm, respectively). Additionally, the berries of these genotypes seemed to be a good source of sugar (9.02–19.69 g/100 g), pectins (0.67%–1.33%), and ash (0.59%–0.67%). Some genotypes of Saskatoon berry, especially the clones type S, type N, and cvs. “Honeywood” and “Smoky”, may be selected for their potential applications in commercial cultivation to produce fruits with valuable health-promoting nutritional effects on human health. Additionally, three new genotypes that may offer new functional materials can be recommended for fruit growers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Excellent Duplex Stability of Oligonucleotides Containing 2′-Amino-LNA Functionalized with Galactose Units
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050852
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A convenient method for the preparation of oligonucleotides containing internally-attached galactose and triantennary galactose units has been developed based on click chemistry between 2′-N-alkyne 2′-amino-LNA nucleosides and azido-functionalized galactosyl building blocks. The synthesized oligonucleotides show excellent binding affinity and selectivity towards
[...] Read more.
A convenient method for the preparation of oligonucleotides containing internally-attached galactose and triantennary galactose units has been developed based on click chemistry between 2′-N-alkyne 2′-amino-LNA nucleosides and azido-functionalized galactosyl building blocks. The synthesized oligonucleotides show excellent binding affinity and selectivity towards complementary DNA/RNA strands with an increase in the melting temperature of up to +23.5 °C for triply-modified variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Oligonucleotide Conjugates)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid and Cost-Effective Quantification of Glucosinolates and Total Phenolic Content in Rocket Leaves by Visible/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050851
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
The potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy to predict glucosinolates and total phenolic content in rocket (Eruca vesicaria) leaves has been evaluated. Accessions of the E. vesicaria species were scanned by NIRS as ground leaf, and their reference values regressed against different
[...] Read more.
The potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy to predict glucosinolates and total phenolic content in rocket (Eruca vesicaria) leaves has been evaluated. Accessions of the E. vesicaria species were scanned by NIRS as ground leaf, and their reference values regressed against different spectral transformations by modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (R2VAL) for the different quality components analyzed in rocket ranged from 0.59 to 0.84, which characterize those equations as having from good to excellent quantitative information. These results show that the total glucosinolates, glucosativin and glucoerucin equations obtained, can be used to identify those samples with low and high contents. The glucoraphanin equation obtained can be used for rough predictions of samples and in case of total phenolic content, the equation showed good correlation. The standard deviation (SD) to standard error of prediction ratio (RPD) and SD to range (RER) were variable for the different quality compounds and showed values that were characteristic of equations suitable for screening purposes or to perform accurate analyses. From the study of the MPLS loadings of the first three terms of the different equations, it can be concluded that some major cell components such as protein and cellulose, highly participated in modelling the equations for glucosinolates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Photoreactions of Endohedral Metallofullerene with Siliranes: Electronic Properties of Carbosilylated Lu3N@Ih-C80
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050850
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
Photochemical carbosilylation of Lu3N@Ih-C80 was performed using siliranes (silacyclopropanes) to afford the corresponding [5,6]- and [6,6]-adducts. Electrochemical studies indicated that the redox potentials of the carbosilylated derivatives were shifted cathodically in comparison with those of the [5,6]-pyrrolidino
[...] Read more.
Photochemical carbosilylation of Lu3N@Ih-C80 was performed using siliranes (silacyclopropanes) to afford the corresponding [5,6]- and [6,6]-adducts. Electrochemical studies indicated that the redox potentials of the carbosilylated derivatives were shifted cathodically in comparison with those of the [5,6]-pyrrolidino adducts. The electronic effect of the silirane addends on Lu3N@Ih-C80 was verified on the basis of density functional theory calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutting-Edge Organic Chemistry in Japan)
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Open AccessReview Antidiabetic Effects of Tea
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050849
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations
[...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Functional Mitochondria Are Important for the Effect of Resveratrol
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050847
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Resveratrol (Resv) is a polyphenol reported to modulate mitochondrial activity. The aim was to use HeLa and 143B cells to characterize the action of Resv on mitochondrial activity, cell size and proliferation using wild type (WT) and Rho 0 cells deficient in mitochondrial
[...] Read more.
Resveratrol (Resv) is a polyphenol reported to modulate mitochondrial activity. The aim was to use HeLa and 143B cells to characterize the action of Resv on mitochondrial activity, cell size and proliferation using wild type (WT) and Rho 0 cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA. In both HeLa WT and Rho 0 cells, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was increased at 20 µM Resv after 24 h, whereas only a non-significant increase of OCR was observed in 143B WT cells. Resv decreased cell number concentration-dependently in both WT and Rho 0 cell types. An increased cell diameter was observed in HeLa WT, but not in Rho 0 when treated with Resv. Overall, the findings presented indicate that functional mitochondria are a prerequisite for cell enlargement by Resv. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvements for Resveratrol Efficacy)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazolo[4,5-h]quinolone Derivatives with Novel Anti-Microbial Properties against Metronidazole Resistant Helicobacter pylori
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050841
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori infection can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer, and the development of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Treatment and eradication of H. pylori infection can prevent relapse and accelerate the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as regression of
[...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori infection can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer, and the development of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Treatment and eradication of H. pylori infection can prevent relapse and accelerate the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as regression of malignancy. Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of H. pylori, alternative approaches using newly discovered antimicrobial agents in combination with the standard antibiotic regimens for the treatment of H. pylori are of major importance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of newly synthesized 8-amino 7-substituted fluoroquinolone and their correspondent cyclized triazolo derivatives when either alone or combined with metronidazole against metronidazole-resistant H. pylori. Based on standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and checkerboard titration assay, all of the tested compounds showed interesting antimicrobial activity against 12 clinical strains of H. pylori, with best in vitro effect for compounds 4b and 4c. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) mean values showed synergistic pattern in all compounds of Group 5. In addition, additive activities of some of the tested compounds of Group 4 were observed when combined with metronidazole. In contrast, the tested compounds showed no significant urease inhibition activity. These results support the potential of new fluoroquinolone derivatives to be useful in combination with anti-H. pylori drugs in the management of H. pylori-associated diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Halloysite on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Polymer Composites
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050838
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotubular clay minerals, composed of aluminosilicate naturally structured in layers known as halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), have a significant reinforcing impact on polymer matrixes. HNTs have broad applications in biomedical applications, the medicine sector, implant alloys with corrosion protection and manipulated transportation of medicines.
[...] Read more.
Nanotubular clay minerals, composed of aluminosilicate naturally structured in layers known as halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), have a significant reinforcing impact on polymer matrixes. HNTs have broad applications in biomedical applications, the medicine sector, implant alloys with corrosion protection and manipulated transportation of medicines. In polymer engineering, different research studies utilize HNTs that exhibit a beneficial enhancement in the properties of polymer-based nanocomposites. The dispersion of HNTs is improved as a result of pre-treating HNTs with acids. The HNTs’ percentage additive up to 7% shows the highest improvement of tensile strength. The degradation of the polymer can be also significantly improved by doping a low percentage of HNTs. Both the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers were remarkably improved when mixed with HNTs. The effects of HNTs on the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers, such as ultimate strength, elastic modulus, impact strength and thermal stability, are emphasized in this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline Derivatives as Apoptosis Inducers in Chemotherapy by Stabilizing Bcl-2 G-quadruplex DNA
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050829
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
PDF Full-text (2350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Herein, a series of imidazo[4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline derivatives RPIP (PIP = imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline, R = NO2, 1; CF3, 2; Cl, 3; OH, 4) have been synthesized in yields of 82.3–94.7% at
[...] Read more.
Herein, a series of imidazo[4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline derivatives RPIP (PIP = imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline, R = NO2, 1; CF3, 2; Cl, 3; OH, 4) have been synthesized in yields of 82.3–94.7% at 100 °C under the irradiation of microwave. MTT assay has been utilized to evaluate the inhibitory activity (IC50) of these compounds against the growth of various tumor cells, and the results revealed that these compounds, especially 1, exhibited excellent inhibitory activity against the growth of A549 cells with IC50 of 15.03 μM. Moreover, it’s also confirmed that 1 can penetrate into the membrane of tumor cells and distribute in mitochondria when observed under microscopy, resulting apoptosis of tumor cells. The further studies showed that 1 can bind to bcl-2 G-quadruplex DNA, which demonstrated by the increase of melting point of bcl-2 G4 DNA in the presence of 1, as well as electronic titration and emission spectra. In a word, this kind of compound may develop as a potential apoptosis inducer in cancer chemotherapy via binding and stabilizing to the bcl-2 G-quadruplex DNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ECSOC-20)
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Alkylation Reactions of N(7)-Unsubstituted 1,3-Diazaoxindoles
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050846
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
PDF Full-text (4430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The chemistry of the 5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-one (1,3-diazaoxindole) compound family, possessing a drug-like scaffold, is unexplored. In this study, the alkylation reactions of N(7)-unsubstituted 5-isopropyl-1,3-diazaoxindoles bearing various substituents at the C(2) position have been investigated. The starting compounds were
[...] Read more.
The chemistry of the 5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-one (1,3-diazaoxindole) compound family, possessing a drug-like scaffold, is unexplored. In this study, the alkylation reactions of N(7)-unsubstituted 5-isopropyl-1,3-diazaoxindoles bearing various substituents at the C(2) position have been investigated. The starting compounds were synthesized from the C(5)-unsubstituted parent compounds by condensation with acetone and subsequent catalytic reduction of the 5-isopropylidene moiety. Alkylation of the thus obtained 5-isopropyl derivatives with methyl iodide or benzyl bromide in the presence of a large excess of sodium hydroxide led to 5,7-disubstituted derivatives. Use of butyllithium as the base rendered alkylation in the C(5) position possible with reasonable selectivity, without affecting the N(7) atom. During the study on the alkylation reactions, some interesting by-products were also isolated and characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heterocyclic Compounds)
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