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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 830; doi:10.3390/molecules22050830

Protective Effects of Tormentic Acid, a Major Component of Suspension Cultures of Eriobotrya japonica Cells, on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

1
School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih R., Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Nihon Pharmaceutical University, 10281, Komuro, Ina-machi, Kitaadachi-gun, Saitama 3620806, Japan
3
Jen Li Biotech Company Ltd., Taiping District, Taichung 41143, Taiwan
4
Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alan J. Slusarenko
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3571 KB, uploaded 18 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

An acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity and lead to fatal liver damage. The hepatoprotective effects of tormentic acid (TA) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage were investigated in mice. TA was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered for six days prior to APAP administration. Pretreatment with TA prevented the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (T-Bil), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), and liver lipid peroxide levels in APAP-treated mice and markedly reduced APAP-induced histological alterations in liver tissues. Additionally, TA attenuated the APAP-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and IL-6. Furthermore, the Western blot analysis showed that TA blocked the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), as well as the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in APAP-injured liver tissues. TA also retained the superoxidase dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in the liver. These results suggest that the hepatoprotective effects of TA may be related to its anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation. Antioxidative properties were also observed, as shown by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction in the liver, and decreases in lipid peroxides and ROS. Therefore, TA may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the prevention of APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: tormentic acid; acetaminophen; hepatoprotective; HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1); mapk; NF-κB; antioxidation; anti-inflammation; reactive oxygen species. tormentic acid; acetaminophen; hepatoprotective; HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1); mapk; NF-κB; antioxidation; anti-inflammation; reactive oxygen species.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, W.-P.; Huang, S.-S.; Matsuda, Y.; Saito, H.; Uramaru, N.; Ho, H.-Y.; Wu, J.-B.; Huang, G.-J. Protective Effects of Tormentic Acid, a Major Component of Suspension Cultures of Eriobotrya japonica Cells, on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice. Molecules 2017, 22, 830.

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