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Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8461-8472; doi:10.3390/molecules18078461
Article

Preparation and Characterization of Poly(ethyl hydrazide)-Grafted Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre for the Removal of Cu(II) Ions from an Aqueous Environment

1
,
1,2,* , 3
 and
1
1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 3 Chemistry Unit, Centre of Foundation Studies for Agricultural Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 26 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
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Abstract

Poly(ethyl hydrazide)-grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre (peh-g-opefb) was successfully prepared by heating poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted opefb (pma-g-opefb) at 60 °C for 4 h with a solution of hydrazine hydrate (15% v/v) in ethanol. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the product shows a secondary amine peak at 3267 cm−1, with amide carbonyl peaks at 1729 cm−1 and 1643 cm−1. The chelating ability of peh-g-opefb was tested with copper ion in aqueous solution. A batch adsorption study revealed that maximum adsorption of copper ion was achieved at pH 5. An isotherm study showed the adsorption follows a Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 43.48 mg g−1 at 25 °C. A kinetic study showed that the adsorption of copper ion rapidly reaches equilibrium and follows a pseudo–second-order kinetic model, with a constant rate of 7.02 × 10−4 g mg−1 min−1 at 25 °C. The Gibbs free energy, ∆G⁰, value is negative, indicating a spontaneous sorption process. Entropy, ∆S⁰, gives a positive value, indicating that the system is becoming increasingly disordered after the adsorption of copper ion. A positive enthalpy value, ∆H⁰, shows that the endothermic process takes place during the adsorption and is more favourable at high temperatures.
Keywords: copper; poly(ethyl hydrazide); isotherm; kinetic copper; poly(ethyl hydrazide); isotherm; kinetic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Johari, I.S.; Yusof, N.A.; Haron, M.J.; Nor, S.M.M. Preparation and Characterization of Poly(ethyl hydrazide)-Grafted Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre for the Removal of Cu(II) Ions from an Aqueous Environment. Molecules 2013, 18, 8461-8472.

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