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Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.)
Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 234, Nigeria
GI Microbiology and Biotechnology Unit, Agricultural Research Council, Animal Production Institute, Irene 0062, South Africa
Department of Microbiology, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho 2745, South Africa
Department of Biological Sciences, Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu 234, Nigeria
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2013; in revised form: 19 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Abstract: A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli) and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.
Keywords: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); stem bark extract; fraction; phytochemistry; resistance; infections; bioactive; antibacterial; antibiotics
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Abioye, E.O.; Akinpelu, D.A.; Aiyegoro, O.A.; Adegboye, M.F.; Oni, M.O.; Okoh, A.I. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.). Molecules 2013, 18, 8485-8499.
Abioye EO, Akinpelu DA, Aiyegoro OA, Adegboye MF, Oni MO, Okoh AI. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.). Molecules. 2013; 18(7):8485-8499.
Abioye, Emmanuel O.; Akinpelu, David A.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.; Adegboye, Mobolaji F.; Oni, Matthew O.; Okoh, Anthony I. 2013. "Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.)." Molecules 18, no. 7: 8485-8499.