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Molecules, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2011), Pages 5315-6164

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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Characteristics and Immunomodulatory Activities of Three Polysaccharide-Protein Complexes of Longan Pulp
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6148-6164; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076148
Received: 26 May 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 14 July 2011 / Published: 21 July 2011
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (406 KB)
Abstract
Three polysaccharide-protein complexes of longan pulp (LP1-3) were isolated in this work. Their physicochemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages in vitro were investigated. The carbohydrate portions of LP1-3 were principally composed of glucose, arabinose and mannose.
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Three polysaccharide-protein complexes of longan pulp (LP1-3) were isolated in this work. Their physicochemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages in vitro were investigated. The carbohydrate portions of LP1-3 were principally composed of glucose, arabinose and mannose. LP3 displayed the maximal moisture absorption, and the thermal stability of LP2 was obviously higher than that of LP1 and LP3. All of them showed the characteristic polysaccharide and protein bands in the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum. For a certain dose, all the fractions could significantly stimulate splenocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis against neutral red, and NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1 lymphoma cell (P < 0.05). The results demonstrated that the polysaccharide-protein complexes of longan pulp have medical potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants due to their immunomodulatory activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and E/Z Configuration Determination of Novel Derivatives of 3-Aryl-2-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio) Acrylonitrile, 3-(Benzothiazol-2'-ylthio)-4-(furan-2''-yl)-3-buten-2-one and 2-(1-(Furan-2''-yl)-3'-oxobut-1''-en-2-ylthio)-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6129-6147; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076129
Received: 21 June 2011 / Revised: 11 July 2011 / Accepted: 14 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (870 KB)
Abstract
Knoevenagel condensation of 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) acetonitrile (2) with either furan-2-carbaldehyde or thiophene-2-carbaldehydes leads to E-isomers 4a–b exclusively, while the condensation of the compound 2 with benzaldehyde or para-substituted benzaldehydes with an electron-donating group afforded E/Z mixtures 4c–e with preferentially formation
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Knoevenagel condensation of 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) acetonitrile (2) with either furan-2-carbaldehyde or thiophene-2-carbaldehydes leads to E-isomers 4a–b exclusively, while the condensation of the compound 2 with benzaldehyde or para-substituted benzaldehydes with an electron-donating group afforded E/Z mixtures 4c–e with preferentially formation of the E-isomer. Condensation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (3a) with either 1-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio) propan-2-one (5) or 2-(2'-oxo propylthio)-3-phenyl-quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9) leads exclusively to the Z-isomers of 6 and 10, respectively. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOE, MS and X-ray crystallographic investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterocycles)
Open AccessArticle Ruthenium-Catalyzed Selective Hydrogenation of bis-Arylidene Tetramic Acids. Application to the Synthesis of Novel Structurally Diverse Pyrrolidine-2,4-diones
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6116-6128; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076116
Received: 1 April 2011 / Revised: 5 July 2011 / Accepted: 11 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (481 KB)
Abstract
Catalytic hydrogenation of 3,5-bis-arylidenetetramic acids, known for their biological activity, has been developed. The chemoselective ruthenium-catalyzed reduction of the exocyclic carbon-carbon double bonds on pyrrolidine-2,4-dione ring system, containing other reducible functions, has been investigated. Depending on the substrate the yield of the hydrogenation
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Catalytic hydrogenation of 3,5-bis-arylidenetetramic acids, known for their biological activity, has been developed. The chemoselective ruthenium-catalyzed reduction of the exocyclic carbon-carbon double bonds on pyrrolidine-2,4-dione ring system, containing other reducible functions, has been investigated. Depending on the substrate the yield of the hydrogenation process can reach up to 95%. The structural elucidation has been established using NMR and HRMS spectral data. Full article
Open AccessReview The Stereochemistry of Complex Polyketide Biosynthesis by Modular Polyketide Synthases
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6092-6115; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076092
Received: 8 June 2011 / Revised: 6 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1154 KB)
Abstract
Polyketides are a diverse class of medically important natural products whose biosynthesis is catalysed by polyketide synthases (PKSs), in a fashion highly analogous to fatty acid biosynthesis. In modular PKSs, the polyketide chain is assembled by the successive condensation of activated carboxylic acid-derived
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Polyketides are a diverse class of medically important natural products whose biosynthesis is catalysed by polyketide synthases (PKSs), in a fashion highly analogous to fatty acid biosynthesis. In modular PKSs, the polyketide chain is assembled by the successive condensation of activated carboxylic acid-derived units, where chain extension occurs with the intermediates remaining covalently bound to the enzyme, with the growing polyketide tethered to an acyl carrier domain (ACP). Carboxylated acyl-CoA precursors serve as activated donors that are selected by the acyltransferase domain (AT) providing extender units that are added to the growing chain by condensation catalysed by the ketosynthase domain (KS). The action of ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoylreductase (ER) activities can result in unreduced, partially reduced, or fully reduced centres within the polyketide chain depending on which of these enzymes are present and active. The PKS-catalysed assembly process generates stereochemical diversity, because carbon–carbon double bonds may have either cis- or trans- geometry, and because of the chirality of centres bearing hydroxyl groups (where they are retained) and branching methyl groups (the latter arising from use of propionate extender units). This review shall cover the studies that have determined the stereochemistry in many of the reactions involved in polyketide biosynthesis by modular PKSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyketide)
Open AccessArticle Bent Dinuclear Platinum(II) Halo-Bridged Carbonyl Complexes
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6082-6091; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076082
Received: 24 June 2011 / Revised: 14 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (469 KB)
Abstract
Crystals of trans-Pt2(μ-X)2X2(CO)2 (X = Br, I) have been grown and their molecular and crystalline structures have been solved by X-ray diffraction methods. In both cases the dinuclear molecules are bent, with a
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Crystals of trans-Pt2(μ-X)2X2(CO)2 (X = Br, I) have been grown and their molecular and crystalline structures have been solved by X-ray diffraction methods. In both cases the dinuclear molecules are bent, with a bending angle of 164.6° and 156.5° for the bromide and the iodide, respectively. While the structure of the bromo-derivative is reported here for the first time, a modification of trans-Pt2(μ-I)2I2(CO)2 with planar centrosymmetric molecules is known. This appears to be a rare case of a platinum(II) halo-bridged derivative structurally characterized in both bent and planar forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organometallic Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6068-6081; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076068
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 30 June 2011 / Accepted: 30 June 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (416 KB)
Abstract
A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal
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A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO), superoxide radicals (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antifeedant Diterpenoids against Tribolium castaneum from the Stems and Twigs of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae)
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6060-6067; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076060
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 15 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (392 KB)
Abstract
The screening of several Chinese mangrove plants for insecticidal principles showed that ethanol extract of Ceriops tagal stems and twigs possessed significant feeding deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Family: Rhizophoraceae). From the ethanol extract, three feeding deterrent diterpenoids were
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The screening of several Chinese mangrove plants for insecticidal principles showed that ethanol extract of Ceriops tagal stems and twigs possessed significant feeding deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Family: Rhizophoraceae). From the ethanol extract, three feeding deterrent diterpenoids were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as tagalsin A, B, and H on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Tagalsin A, B, and H exhibited strong feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum adults with EC50 values of 375.3 ppm, 277.3 ppm, and 285.45 ppm, respectively. Full article
Open AccessReview Enzyme-Immobilized Microfluidic Process Reactors
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6041-6059; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076041
Received: 24 June 2011 / Revised: 13 July 2011 / Accepted: 17 July 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 103 | PDF Full-text (1722 KB)
Abstract
Microreaction technology, which is an interdisciplinary science and engineering area, has been the focus of different fields of research in the past few years. Several microreactors have been developed. Enzymes are a type of catalyst, which are useful in the production of substance
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Microreaction technology, which is an interdisciplinary science and engineering area, has been the focus of different fields of research in the past few years. Several microreactors have been developed. Enzymes are a type of catalyst, which are useful in the production of substance in an environmentally friendly way, and they also have high potential for analytical applications. However, not many enzymatic processes have been commercialized, because of problems in stability of the enzymes, cost, and efficiency of the reactions. Thus, there have been demands for innovation in process engineering, particularly for enzymatic reactions, and microreaction devices represent important tools for the development of enzyme processes. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of microchannel reaction technologies especially for enzyme immobilized microreactors. We discuss the manufacturing process of microreaction devices and the advantages of microreactors compared to conventional reaction devices. Fundamental techniques for enzyme immobilized microreactors and important applications of this multidisciplinary technology are also included in our topics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions)
Open AccessArticle Benzylidene-bis-(4-Hydroxycoumarin) and Benzopyrano-Coumarin Derivatives: Synthesis, 1H/13C-NMR Conformational and X-ray Crystal Structure Studies and In Vitro Antiviral Activity Evaluations
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6023-6040; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076023
Received: 13 June 2011 / Revised: 6 July 2011 / Accepted: 12 July 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (1284 KB)
Abstract
We report on the synthesis of 4-hydroxycoumarin dimers 115 bearing an aryl substituent on the central linker and fused benzopyranocoumarin derivatives 1620 and on their in vitro broad anti-DNA and RNA virus activity evaluations. The chemical identities and structure
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We report on the synthesis of 4-hydroxycoumarin dimers 115 bearing an aryl substituent on the central linker and fused benzopyranocoumarin derivatives 1620 and on their in vitro broad anti-DNA and RNA virus activity evaluations. The chemical identities and structure of compounds 120 were deduced from their homo- and heteronuclear NMR measurements whereas the conformational properties of 5, 14 and 20 were assessed by the use of 1D difference NOE enhancements. Unequivocal proof of the stereostructure of compounds 7, 9, 16 and 18 was obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that two 4-hydroxycoumarin moieties in the 4-trifluoromethylphenyl- and 2-nitrophenyl derivatives (compounds 7 and 9, respectively) are intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded between hydroxyl and carbonyl oxygen atoms. Consequently, the compounds 7 and 9 adopt conformations in which two 4-hydroxy-coumarin moieties are anti-disposed. Antiviral activity evaluation results indicated that the 4-bromobenzylidene derivative of bis-(4-hydroxycoumarin) (compound 3) possesses inhibitory activity against HSV-1 (KOS), HSV-2 (G), vaccinia virus and HSV-1 TK- KOS (ACVr) at a concentration of 9–12 μM and at a minimum cytotoxic concentration (MCC) greater than 20 μM. Compounds 46, 8, and 20 were active against feline herpes virus (50% effective concentration, EC50 = 5–8.1 μM), that is at a 4-7-fold lower concentration than the MCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals)
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effects of Constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Cells
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 6010-6022; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16076010
Received: 16 June 2011 / Revised: 13 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (881 KB)
Abstract
A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran
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A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), β-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 1114, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 110 and prenyl-flavonoids 1116 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activities of Extracts and Fractions from Eupatorium lindleyanum DC
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 5998-6009; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16075998
Received: 31 May 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 July 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (488 KB)
Abstract
The antioxidant activities of water extract (WE), ethanol extract (EE), residue water extract (RWE) and petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), n-BuOH (BF) and water (WF) fractions of the ethanol extract from Eupatorium Lindley DC were investigated for the first time. Total
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The antioxidant activities of water extract (WE), ethanol extract (EE), residue water extract (RWE) and petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), n-BuOH (BF) and water (WF) fractions of the ethanol extract from Eupatorium Lindley DC were investigated for the first time. Total phenolics content, DPPH radical scavenging activities, superoxide radical scavenging activities, total reduction capability, and ferrous ions chelating activities were determined for all the extracts and fractions. The results showed that all the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities with different magnitudes of potency. Among all the samples, WE and RWE exhibited the best antioxidant capacities, the BF also exhibited high antioxidant abilities in all tests except for the metal chelating activity, while the other extracts and fractions were relatively weak antioxidants. The BF had the highest total phenolics contents in all extracts and fractions, and the WE and RWE were found to be rich in tannins. Furthermore, the content of total phenolics showed good correlation with DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, and the reducing power. Phenolic composition of all the extracts and fractions was identified and quantified by HPLC. The results indicate that the extracts of E. Lindley DC might be a useful potential source of natural antioxidant ingredients. Full article
Open AccessArticle Three New Phytoecdysteroids Containing a Furan Ring from the Roots of Achyranthes bidentata Bl.
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 5989-5997; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16075989
Received: 10 May 2011 / Revised: 13 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 18 July 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (460 KB)
Abstract
Three new phytoecdysteroid compounds, named niuxixinsterone A (1), B (2) and C (3) with acetal functions in the side-chain were isolated from Achyranthes bidentata Bl. The structures were established as (20R,22R,24S)-20-
[...] Read more.
Three new phytoecdysteroid compounds, named niuxixinsterone A (1), B (2) and C (3) with acetal functions in the side-chain were isolated from Achyranthes bidentata Bl. The structures were established as (20R,22R,24S)-20-O,22-O-(5′-hydroxymethyl)-furfurylidene-2β,3β,14α,25-tetrahydroxy-5β-ergost-7-en-6-one (1), (20R,22R)-20-O,22-O-(5′-hydroxymethyl)-furfurylidene-2β,3β,25-trihydroxy-14β-methyl-18-nor-5β-cholesta-7,12-dien-6-one (2) and (20R,22R,25R)-20-O,22-O-(5′-hydroxymethyl)-furfurylidene-2β, 3β,5β,14α,26-pentahydroxycholest-7-en-6-one (3) by means of spectroscopic evidence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated One-Pot Enrichment and Immobilization of Styrene Monooxygenase (StyA) Using SEPABEAD EC-EA and EC-Q1A Anion-Exchange Carriers
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 5975-5988; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16075975
Received: 23 June 2011 / Accepted: 12 July 2011 / Published: 18 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (549 KB)
Abstract
A straightforward one-pot procedure combining enrichment and immobilization of recombinantely expressed FADH2 dependent styrene monooxygenase (StyA) directly from Escherichia coli cell extracts was investigated. Sepabeads EC-EA and EC-Q1A anion-exchange carriers were employed to non-covalently adsorb StyA from the cell extracts depending on
[...] Read more.
A straightforward one-pot procedure combining enrichment and immobilization of recombinantely expressed FADH2 dependent styrene monooxygenase (StyA) directly from Escherichia coli cell extracts was investigated. Sepabeads EC-EA and EC-Q1A anion-exchange carriers were employed to non-covalently adsorb StyA from the cell extracts depending on basic parameters such as varying initial protein concentrations and pH. The protein fraction of the cell extract contained around 25% StyA. At low initial protein concentrations (2.5 mg mL−1) and pH 6, the enzyme could be enriched up to 52.4% on Sepabeads EC-EA and up to 46.0% on Sepabeads EC-Q1A, accounting for an almost complete StyA adsorption from the cell extracts. Higher initial protein concentrations were necessary to exploit the high loading capacity of the beads. At 20 mg mL−1, up to 37.6% of the theoretical bead loading capacity could be utilized for StyA binding using Sepabeads EC-EA, and 34.0% using Sepabeads EC-Q1A. For both carriers, protein leakage under reaction conditions could be reduced to less than 2%. During assays, the FADH2 cofactor necessary for StyA activity was supplied by the NADH-FAD reductase component styrene monooxygenase B (StyB). StyA immobilized on Sepabeads EC-Q1A displayed twice as high styrene epoxidation rates (0.2 U mgStyA−1) as compared to Sepabeads EC-EA. This activity could be increased to 0.7 U mgStyA−1 by co-immobilizing StyB on Sepabeads EC-Q1A, which corresponds to 33% of the soluble StyA activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions)
Open AccessArticle Synthetic Organic Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids: The Viscosity Question
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 5963-5974; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16075963
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 17 June 2011 / Accepted: 27 June 2011 / Published: 18 July 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (440 KB)
Abstract
Ionic liquids are obvious candidates for use in electrochemical applications due to their ionic character. Nevertheless, relatively little has been done to explore their application in electrosynthesis. We have studied the Shono oxidation of arylamines and carbamates using ionic liquids as recyclable solvents
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Ionic liquids are obvious candidates for use in electrochemical applications due to their ionic character. Nevertheless, relatively little has been done to explore their application in electrosynthesis. We have studied the Shono oxidation of arylamines and carbamates using ionic liquids as recyclable solvents and have noted that the viscosity of the medium is a major problem, although with the addition of sufficient co-solvent, good results and excellent recovery and recycling of the ionic liquid can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Electrosynthesis)
Open AccessReview In Mesopore Protein Digestion: A New Forthcoming Strategy in Proteomics
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 5938-5962; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16075938
Received: 2 June 2011 / Revised: 7 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (756 KB)
Abstract
The conventional protocols for in solution or in gel protein digestion require many steps and long reaction times. The use of trypsin immobilized onto solid supports has recently captured the attention of many research groups, because these systems can speed-up protein digestion significantly.
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The conventional protocols for in solution or in gel protein digestion require many steps and long reaction times. The use of trypsin immobilized onto solid supports has recently captured the attention of many research groups, because these systems can speed-up protein digestion significantly. The utilization of new materials such as mesoporous silica as supports, in which enzyme and substrate are dramatically concentrated and confined in the nanospace, offers new opportunities to reduce the complexity of proteomics workflows. An overview of the procedures for in situ proteolysis of single proteins or complex protein mixtures is reported, with a special focus on porous materials used as catalysts. The challenging efforts for designing such systems aimed at mimicking the biochemistry of living cells are reviewed. Potentials, limitations and challenges of this branch of enzyme catalysis, which we indicate as in mesopore digestion, are discussed, in relation to its suitability for high-speed and high-throughput proteomics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis)
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