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Molecules 2011, 16(7), 5769-5784; doi:10.3390/molecules16075769
Article

Use of Novel Cardanol-Porphyrin Hybrids and Their TiO2-Based Composites for the Photodegradation of 4-Nitrophenol in Water

1,* , 1, 1, 1, 2
 and
3
1 Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Arnesano Street, Lecce 73100, Italy 2 Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069, China 3 Laboratory of Products and Processes Technology (LPT), Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 6021, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2011 / Revised: 24 June 2011 / Accepted: 1 July 2011 / Published: 7 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Abstract

Cardanol, a well known hazardous byproduct of the cashew industry, has been used as starting material for the synthesis of useful differently substituted “cardanol-based” porphyrins and their zinc(II), copper(II), cobalt(II) and Fe(III) complexes. Novel composites prepared by impregnation of polycrystalline TiO2 powder with an opportune amount of “cardanol-based” porphyrins, which act as sensitizers for the improvement of the photo-catalytic activity of the bare TiO2, have been used in the photodegradation in water of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), which is a toxic and bio-refractory pollutant, dangerous for ecosystems and human health.
Keywords: cardanol; porphyrins; metalloporphyrins; heterogeneous photocatalysis; 4-nitrophenol; porphyrin-TiO2 photocatalysts cardanol; porphyrins; metalloporphyrins; heterogeneous photocatalysis; 4-nitrophenol; porphyrin-TiO2 photocatalysts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Vasapollo, G.; Mele, G.; Sole, R.D.; Pio, I.; Li, J.; Mazzetto, S.E. Use of Novel Cardanol-Porphyrin Hybrids and Their TiO2-Based Composites for the Photodegradation of 4-Nitrophenol in Water. Molecules 2011, 16, 5769-5784.

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