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Special Issue "Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Organic Synthesis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Giuseppe Mele

Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Arnesano 73100 Lecce, Italy
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Interests: phthalocyanines; porphyrins; fullerenes; catalysis; photocatalysis; environmental chemistry; green chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue on “Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines” will offer an attractive forum to present recent results concerning the synthesis and characterization of these classes of macrocyclic compounds devoted to the preparation of novel functional materials and their utilization to perform innovative processes.

Dr. Giuseppe Mele
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • tetrapyrroles
  • porphyrins
  • phthalocyanines dyes
  • catalytic processes
  • degradation of pollutants
  • electrophotocatalysis
  • metals
  • lanthanides
  • liquid phase processes
  • vapour phase processes
  • sensitizers
  • Synthesis
  • UV-light
  • visible light

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle DNA Binding, Photonuclease Activity and Human Serum Albumin Interaction of a Water-Soluble Freebase Carboxyl Corrole
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 54; doi:10.3390/molecules21010054
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 31 December 2015
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Abstract
The DNA binding property of 5,10,15-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl) corrole (TCPC) was studied by UV-Visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. TCPC can bind to ct-DNA via an outside binding mode with the binding constant of Kb = 1.05 × 105 M−1
[...] Read more.
The DNA binding property of 5,10,15-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl) corrole (TCPC) was studied by UV-Visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. TCPC can bind to ct-DNA via an outside binding mode with the binding constant of Kb = 1.05 × 105 M−1. TCPC also displayed good photonuclease activity, which involves singlet oxygen species (1O2). The binding constant between TCPC and human serum albumin (HSA) is KA = 2.24 × 105 M−1 with a simulated binding distance of 2.06 nm. The fluorescence quenching of HSA by TCPC followed a static quenching process. Site marker competitive displacement experiments indicated that warfarin site I is the main binding site. The secondary structure of HSA was changed upon interaction with TCPC, which was confirmed by UV-Visible and CD spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Optical and Electrical Properties of TTF-MPcs (M = Cu, Zn) Interfaces for Optoelectronic Applications
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21037-21049; doi:10.3390/molecules201219742
Received: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sandwich structures were fabricated by a vacuum deposition method using MPc (M = Cu, Zn), with a Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative, and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and aluminum electrodes. The structure and morphology of the deposited films were studied by IR spectroscopy, scanning electron
[...] Read more.
Sandwich structures were fabricated by a vacuum deposition method using MPc (M = Cu, Zn), with a Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative, and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and aluminum electrodes. The structure and morphology of the deposited films were studied by IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The absorption spectra of TTF derivative-MPc (M = Cu, Zn) thin films deposited at room temperature were recorded in the spectral range 200–1000 nm. The optical band gap of the thin films was determined from the (αhν)1/2 vs. plot. The direct-current (DC) electrical properties of the glass/ITO/TTFderiv-MPc (M = Cu, Zn)/Al structures were also investigated. Changes in conductivity of the derivative-TTF-enriched Pc compounds suggest the formation of alternative paths for carrier conduction. At low voltages, forward current density obeys an ohmic I-V relationship; at higher voltages, conduction is mostly due to a space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Glycosylated Metal Phthalocyanines
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20173-20185; doi:10.3390/molecules201119683
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the first part; the syntheses of mono-; di-; and tetra-glycosylated phthalonitriles is described; which are the most used starting materials for the preparation of the corresponding glycosylated metal (mostly zinc) phthalocyanines. In the second section; the preparation of symmetric and unsymmetric mono-;
[...] Read more.
In the first part; the syntheses of mono-; di-; and tetra-glycosylated phthalonitriles is described; which are the most used starting materials for the preparation of the corresponding glycosylated metal (mostly zinc) phthalocyanines. In the second section; the preparation of symmetric and unsymmetric mono-; tetra-; and octa- glycosylated zinc phthalocyanines are reviewed; in which the sugar is attached to the phthalocyanine macrocycle; either anomerically or via another one of its OH-groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of the Optical and Textural Properties of Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles Trapped Within ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 Translucent Xerogels
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19463-19488; doi:10.3390/molecules201019463
Received: 1 August 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The entrapping of physicochemical active molecules inside mesoporous networks is an appealing field of research due to the myriad of potential applications in optics, photocatalysis, chemical sensing, and medicine. One of the most important reasons for this success is the possibility of optimizing
[...] Read more.
The entrapping of physicochemical active molecules inside mesoporous networks is an appealing field of research due to the myriad of potential applications in optics, photocatalysis, chemical sensing, and medicine. One of the most important reasons for this success is the possibility of optimizing the properties that a free active species displays in solution but now trapped inside a solid substrate. Additionally it is possible to modulate the textural characteristics of substrates, such as pore size, specific surface area, polarity and chemical affinity of the surface, toward the physical or chemical adhesion of a variety of adsorbates. In the present document, two kinds of non-silicon metal alkoxides, Zr and Ti, are employed to prepare xerogels containing entrapped tetrapyrrolic species that could be inserted beforehand in analogue silica systems. The main goal is to develop efficient methods for trapping or binding tetrapyrrole macrocycles inside TiO2 and ZrO2 xerogels, while comparing the properties of these systems against those of the SiO2 analogues. Once the optimal synthesis conditions for obtaining translucent monolithic xerogels of ZrO2 and TiO2 networks were determined, it was confirmed that these substrates allowed the entrapment, in monomeric form, of macrocycles that commonly appear as aggregates within the SiO2 network. From these experiments, it could be determined that the average pore diameters, specific surface areas, and water sorption capacities depicted by each one of these substrates, are a consequence of their own nature combined with the particular structure of the entrapped tetrapyrrole macrocycle. Furthermore, the establishment of covalent bonds between the intruding species and the pore walls leads to the obtainment of very similar pore sizes in the three different metal oxide (Ti, Zr, and Si) substrates as a consequence of the templating effect of the encapsulated species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Spectroscopic Evaluation of Two Novel Glycosylated Zinc(II)-Phthalocyanines
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 18367-18386; doi:10.3390/molecules201018367
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 5 October 2015 / Accepted: 6 October 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In continuation of our work on glycoconjugated phthalocyanines, two new water soluble, non-ionic zinc(II) phthalocyanines have been prepared and fully characterized by means of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF, ESI-TOF, UV-Vis spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime measurements. The carbohydrate-containing phthalonitrile precursors were
[...] Read more.
In continuation of our work on glycoconjugated phthalocyanines, two new water soluble, non-ionic zinc(II) phthalocyanines have been prepared and fully characterized by means of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF, ESI-TOF, UV-Vis spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime measurements. The carbohydrate-containing phthalonitrile precursors were synthesized through a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The 2-methoxyethoxymethyl protecting group (MEM) was used to protect the carbohydrate moieties. It resisted the harsh basic cyclotetramerization conditions and could be easily cleaved under mild acidic conditions. The glycoconjugated zinc(II) phthalocyanines described here have molar extinction coefficents εmax > 105 m−1 cm−1 and absorption maxima λ > 680 nm, which make them attractive photosensitizers for photo-dynamic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Ring Opening Reactions through C-O Bond Cleavage Uniquely Adding Chemical Functionality to Boron Subphthalocyanine
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 18237-18245; doi:10.3390/molecules201018237
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 16 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 7 October 2015
PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We are reporting the unexpected reaction between bromo-boron subphthalocyanine (Br-BsubPc) and THF, 1,4-dioxane or γ-butyrolactone that results in the ring opening of the solvent and its addition into the BsubPc moiety. Under heating, the endocyclic C-O bond of the solvent is cleaved and
[...] Read more.
We are reporting the unexpected reaction between bromo-boron subphthalocyanine (Br-BsubPc) and THF, 1,4-dioxane or γ-butyrolactone that results in the ring opening of the solvent and its addition into the BsubPc moiety. Under heating, the endocyclic C-O bond of the solvent is cleaved and the corresponding bromoalkoxy-BsubPc derivative is obtained. These novel alkoxy-BsubPc derivatives have remaining alkyl-bromides suitable for further functionalization. The alkoxy-BsubPcs maintain the characteristic strongly absorption in visible spectrum and their fluorescence quantum yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Electrical Properties of Multi-Pyrene/Porphyrin-Dendrimers
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 17533-17543; doi:10.3390/molecules200917533
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
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Abstract
Dendrimers bearing pyrene donor groups have been obtained and act as efficient light-harvesting antennae capable of transferring light energy through space from their periphery to their core. The light-harvesting ability increases with each generation due to an increase in the number of peripheral
[...] Read more.
Dendrimers bearing pyrene donor groups have been obtained and act as efficient light-harvesting antennae capable of transferring light energy through space from their periphery to their core. The light-harvesting ability increases with each generation due to an increase in the number of peripheral pyrenes. In order to evaluate the photovoltaic properties of the compounds, thermal evaporated thin films were produced and the voltage response in the presence of visible light was obtained. The energy transfer efficiency was found to be almost quantitative for the first and second generations. The dendrimers have the potential to become integral components of molecular photonic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Some Phthalocyanine and Naphthalocyanine Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminium in Acidic Medium: Experimental, Quantum Chemical Calculations, QSAR Studies and Synergistic Effect of Iodide Ions
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 15701-15734; doi:10.3390/molecules200915701
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effects of seven macrocyclic compounds comprising four phthalocyanines (Pcs) namely 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc1), 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc2), 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc3) and 29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc4), and three naphthalocyanines namely 5,9,14,18,23,27,32,36-octabutoxy-2,3-naphthalocyanine
[...] Read more.
The effects of seven macrocyclic compounds comprising four phthalocyanines (Pcs) namely 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc1), 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc2), 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc3) and 29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc4), and three naphthalocyanines namely 5,9,14,18,23,27,32,36-octabutoxy-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc1), 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc2) and 2,3-naphthalocyanine (nP3) were investigated on the corrosion of aluminium (Al) in 1 M HCl using a gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization technique, quantum chemical calculations and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). Synergistic effects of KI on the corrosion inhibition properties of the compounds were also investigated. All the studied compounds showed appreciable inhibition efficiencies, which decrease with increasing temperature from 30 °C to 70 °C. At each concentration of the inhibitor, addition of 0.1% KI increased the inhibition efficiency compared to the absence of KI indicating the occurrence of synergistic interactions between the studied molecules and I ions. From the potentiodynamic polarization studies, the studied Pcs and nPcs are mixed type corrosion inhibitors both without and with addition of KI. The adsorption of the studied molecules on Al surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, while the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of the studied compounds on Al surface is spontaneous and involves competitive physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. The experimental results revealed the aggregated interactions between the inhibitor molecules and the results further indicated that the peripheral groups on the compounds affect these interactions. The calculated quantum chemical parameters and the QSAR results revealed the possibility of strong interactions between the studied inhibitors and metal surface. QSAR analysis on the quantum chemical parameters obtained with B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method show that a combination of two quantum chemical parameters to form a composite index provides the best correlation with the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Porphyrins as Corrosion Inhibitors for N80 Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution: Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical, QSAR and Monte Carlo Simulations Studies
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 15122-15146; doi:10.3390/molecules200815122
Received: 28 June 2015 / Revised: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (11175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inhibition of the corrosion of N80 steel in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution saturated with CO2 by four porphyrins, namely 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (HPTB), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (T4PP), 4,4′,4″,4‴-(porphyrin-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)tetrakis(benzoic acid) (THP) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin
[...] Read more.
The inhibition of the corrosion of N80 steel in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution saturated with CO2 by four porphyrins, namely 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (HPTB), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (T4PP), 4,4′,4″,4‴-(porphyrin-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)tetrakis(benzoic acid) (THP) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (TPP) was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency, η% increases with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. The EIS results revealed that the N80 steel surface with adsorbed porphyrins exhibited non-ideal capacitive behaviour with reduced charge transfer activity. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicated that the studied porphyrins acted as mixed type inhibitors. The SECM results confirmed the adsorption of the porphyrins on N80 steel thereby forming a relatively insulated surface. The SEM also confirmed the formation of protective films of the porphyrins on N80 steel surface thereby protecting the surface from direct acid attack. Quantum chemical calculations, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) were also carried out on the studied porphyrins and the results showed that the corrosion inhibition performances of the porphyrins could be related to their EHOMO, ELUMO, ω, and μ values. Monte Carlo simulation studies showed that THP has the highest adsorption energy, while T4PP has the least adsorption energy in agreement with the values of σ from quantum chemical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Phthalocyanines Modified with Optically Active Alcohols
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 13575-13590; doi:10.3390/molecules200813575
Received: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three phthalocyanine derivatives were synthesized and characterized: one modified with a racemic mixture of 1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol and two other macrocycles modified with each one of the enantioenriched isomers (R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol and (S)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, mass
[...] Read more.
Three phthalocyanine derivatives were synthesized and characterized: one modified with a racemic mixture of 1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol and two other macrocycles modified with each one of the enantioenriched isomers (R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol and (S)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV-Vis absorption, and excitation and emission spectra. Additionally, partition coefficient values and the quantum yield of the generation of oxygen reactive species were determined. Interestingly, the phthalocyanine containing a (R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethoxy moiety showed higher quantum yield of reactive oxygen species generation than other compounds under the same conditions. In addition, the obtained fluorescence microscopy and cell viability results have shown that these phthalocyanines have different interactions with mammary MCF-7 cells. Therefore, our results indicate that the photochemical and biological properties of phthalocyanines with chiral ligands should be evaluated separately for each enantiomeric species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle High Fluorescent Porphyrin-PAMAM-Fluorene Dendrimers
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8548-8559; doi:10.3390/molecules20058548
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new classes of dendrimers bearing 8 and 32 fluorene donor groups have been synthesized. The first and second generations of these porphyrin-PAMAM-fluorene dendrimers were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy, elemental analyses and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The UV-vis spectra
[...] Read more.
Two new classes of dendrimers bearing 8 and 32 fluorene donor groups have been synthesized. The first and second generations of these porphyrin-PAMAM-fluorene dendrimers were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy, elemental analyses and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The UV-vis spectra showed that the individual properties of donor and acceptor moieties were preserved, indicating that the new dendrimers could be used as photosynthetic antennae. Furthermore, for fluorescent spectroscopy, these dendrimers showed good energy transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessCommunication A Mild Catalytic Oxidation System: FePcOTf/H2O2 Applied for Cyclohexene Dihydroxylation
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8429-8439; doi:10.3390/molecules20058429
Received: 27 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
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Abstract
Iron (III) phthalocyanine complexes were employed for the first time as a mild and efficient Lewis acid catalyst in the selective oxidation of cyclohexene to cyclohexane-1,2-diol. It was found that the catalyst FePcOTf shown excellent conversion and moderate selectivity relative to other iron
[...] Read more.
Iron (III) phthalocyanine complexes were employed for the first time as a mild and efficient Lewis acid catalyst in the selective oxidation of cyclohexene to cyclohexane-1,2-diol. It was found that the catalyst FePcOTf shown excellent conversion and moderate selectivity relative to other iron (III) phthalocyanine complexes. The optimum conditions of the oxidation reaction catalyzed by FePcOTf/H2O2 have been researched in this paper. Iron (III) phthalocyanine triflate (1 mol %) as catalyst, hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, methanol as solvent, and a mole ratio of substrate and oxidant (H2O2) of 1:1 were used for achieving moderate yields of 1,2-diols under reflux conditions after eight hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Photoreduction of Carbon Dioxide to Formic Acid in Aqueous Suspension: A Comparison between Phthalocyanine/TiO2 and Porphyrin/TiO2 Catalysed Processes
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 396-415; doi:10.3390/molecules20010396
Received: 15 November 2014 / Accepted: 22 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Composite materials prepared by loading polycrystalline TiO2 powders with lipophilic highly branched Cu(II)- and metal-free phthalocyanines or porphyrins, which have been used in the past as photocatalysts for photodegradative processes, have been successfully tested for the efficient photoreduction of carbon dioxide in
[...] Read more.
Composite materials prepared by loading polycrystalline TiO2 powders with lipophilic highly branched Cu(II)- and metal-free phthalocyanines or porphyrins, which have been used in the past as photocatalysts for photodegradative processes, have been successfully tested for the efficient photoreduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous suspension affording significant amounts of formic acid. The results indicated that the presence of the sensitizers is beneficial for the photoactivity, confirming the important role of Cu(II) co-ordinated in the middle of the macrocycles. A comparison between Cu(II) phthalocyanines and Cu(II) porphyrins indicated that the Cu(II)- phthalocyanine sensitizer was more efficient in the photoreduction of CO2 to formic acid, probably due to its favorable reduction potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessCommunication First Example of a Lipophilic Porphyrin-Cardanol Hybrid Embedded in a Cardanol-Based Micellar Nanodispersion
Molecules 2012, 17(10), 12252-12261; doi:10.3390/molecules171012252
Received: 27 August 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 16 October 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardanol is a natural and renewable organic raw material obtained as the major chemical component by vacuum distillation of cashew nut shell liquid. In this work a new sustainable procedure for producing cardanol-based micellar nanodispersions having an embedded lipophilic porphyrin itself peripherally functionalized
[...] Read more.
Cardanol is a natural and renewable organic raw material obtained as the major chemical component by vacuum distillation of cashew nut shell liquid. In this work a new sustainable procedure for producing cardanol-based micellar nanodispersions having an embedded lipophilic porphyrin itself peripherally functionalized with cardanol substituents (porphyrin-cardanol hybrid) has been described for the first time. In particular, cardanol acts as the solvent of the cardanol hybrid porphyrin and cholesterol as well as being the main component of the nanodispersions. In this way a “green” micellar nanodispersion, in which a high percentage of the micellar system is derived from renewable “functional” molecules, has been produced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Lipophilic Lanthanide Bis-Phthalocyanines Functionalized by Pentadecylphenoxy Groups: Synthesis, Characterization and UV-Photostability
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10738-10753; doi:10.3390/molecules170910738
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 7 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (568 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Novel sandwich-type phthalocyanines containing a rare earth metal core (Pr, Nd, Eu–Lu) and macrocycles peripherally substituted by pentadecylphenoxy groups were synthesized using a cardanol-based phthalonitrile precursor and the respective lanthanide acetate. Additionally, the metal free-base analog compound was studied for comparison. The purified
[...] Read more.
Novel sandwich-type phthalocyanines containing a rare earth metal core (Pr, Nd, Eu–Lu) and macrocycles peripherally substituted by pentadecylphenoxy groups were synthesized using a cardanol-based phthalonitrile precursor and the respective lanthanide acetate. Additionally, the metal free-base analog compound was studied for comparison. The purified reaction products were all found to be thick and viscous substances at room temperature, showing liquid crystalline behavior with a distinct increase in fluidity at ca. 40 °C. The complexes are readily soluble in chloroalkyl solvents and dissolve fairly well in DMF with some tendency to form aggregates. Besides they are strongly hydrophobic and reveal a peculiar affinity for lipophilic media. The compounds have been characterized by UV-Vis (absorption and emission), FTIR, MS and DSC methods. Photochemical activity in the liquid phase (dimethylformamide, dichloromethane, mineral oil) and the degree of photodegradation demonstrated under constant UV-irradiation (λ = 352 nm) have been analyzed and discussed in terms of photostability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Optical GAP in Thin Films of Amorphous Dilithium Phthalocyanine Using the Tauc and Cody Models
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10000-10013; doi:10.3390/molecules170910000
Received: 1 April 2012 / Revised: 4 August 2012 / Accepted: 5 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (475 KB)
Abstract
Semiconducting thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers, using dilithium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone and 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone as the starting compounds. The films, thus obtained, were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), fast atomic bombardment (FAB+) mass and
[...] Read more.
Semiconducting thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers, using dilithium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone and 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone as the starting compounds. The films, thus obtained, were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), fast atomic bombardment (FAB+) mass and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The surface morphology of these films was analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the temperature-dependent electric current in all cases showed a semiconductor behavior with conductivities on the order of 10−6·S cm−1, whereas the highest value corresponded to the thin film based upon the bidentate amine. The Tauc and Cody optical band gap values of thin films were calculated from the absorption coefficients and were found to be around 1.5 eV, with another strong band between 2.3 and 2.43 eV, arising from non-direct transitions. The curvature in the Tauc plot influencing the determination of the optical gap, the Tauc optical gap corresponding to the thicker film is smaller. The dependence of the Cody optical gap on the film thickness was negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Dry Etching of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films: Effects on Morphology and Surface Stoichiometry
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10119-10130; doi:10.3390/molecules170910119
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 16 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1946 KB)
Abstract
We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment; a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in
[...] Read more.
We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment; a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characteristics of ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc Hybrid Solar Cells Prepared by Oblique-Angle Deposition
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9496-9505; doi:10.3390/molecules17089496
Received: 10 April 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD) were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their
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In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD) were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. The organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc showed short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and power conversion efficiencies (η) of 1.2 mA/cm2, 0.6 V and 0.144%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Self Assembled Films of Porphyrins with Amine Groups at Different Positions: Influence of Their Orientation on the Corrosion Inhibition and the Electrocatalytic Activity
Molecules 2012, 17(7), 7824-7842; doi:10.3390/molecules17077824
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 8 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (605 KB)
Abstract
Self-assembled molecular films of two cobalt porphyrins with amine groups at different positions—(5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2-aminophenyl) porphyrin-cobalt(II), [Co(II) (T(o-NH2)PP)] and (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin-cobalt(II), [Co(II)(T(p-NH2)PP)]—were formed on a gold substrate. The functionalized surfaces were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods.
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Self-assembled molecular films of two cobalt porphyrins with amine groups at different positions—(5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2-aminophenyl) porphyrin-cobalt(II), [Co(II) (T(o-NH2)PP)] and (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin-cobalt(II), [Co(II)(T(p-NH2)PP)]—were formed on a gold substrate. The functionalized surfaces were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods. Both modified gold surfaces completely mask the charge transfer of a [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox couple in solution, indicating the layer is highly resistive in behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses revealed that the porphyrin film with amine groups at ortho positions shows a higher charge-transfer resistance with a better protective behavior compared to the para position modified surface. Raman, AFM and EIS data suggests that an ortho amine positioned molecule forms a more compact layer compared to the para-positioned molecule. This can be explained in terms of their orientation on the gold surface. [Co(II)(T(o-NH2)PP)] adopted a saddle shape orientation whereas [Co(II)(T(p-NH2)PP)] adopted a flat orientation on the gold surface. The porphyrin modified gold electrode catalyzes the oxygen reduction at lower potentials compared to the bare gold electrode. The shift in the overvoltage was higher in case of molecules with flat orientation compared to the saddle shaped oriented porphyrin molecules on the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Zinc Phthalocyanine Labelled Polyethylene Glycol: Preparation, Characterization, Interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin and Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 6348-6361; doi:10.3390/molecules17066348
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 16 May 2012 / Accepted: 17 May 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1310 KB)
Abstract
Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol was prepared to track and monitor the in vivo fate of polyethylene glycol. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Their light stability and fluorescence quantum yield were evaluated by UV-Visible and fluorescence
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Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol was prepared to track and monitor the in vivo fate of polyethylene glycol. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Their light stability and fluorescence quantum yield were evaluated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The interaction of zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol with bovine serum albumin was evaluated by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration calorimetry methods. Optical imaging in vivo, organ aggregation as well as distribution of fluorescence experiments for tracking polyethylene glycol were performed with zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol as fluorescent agent. Results show that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol has good optical stability and high emission ability in the near infrared region. Imaging results demonstrate that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol can track and monitor the in vivo process by near infrared fluorescence imaging, which implies its potential in biomaterials evaluation in vivo by a real-time noninvasive method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Natural Chlorophyll-Related Porphyrins and Chlorins for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Molecules 2012, 17(4), 4484-4497; doi:10.3390/molecules17044484
Received: 13 March 2012 / Revised: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 6 April 2012 / Published: 13 April 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural-chlorophyll-related porphyrins, including (2H, Zn, Cu)-protoporphyrin IX (Por-1) and Zn-mesoporphyrin IX (Por-2), and chlorins, including chlorin e6 (Chl-1), chlorin e4 (Chl-2), and rhodin G7 (Chl-3), have been used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For porphyrin sensitizers that have vinyl groups
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Natural-chlorophyll-related porphyrins, including (2H, Zn, Cu)-protoporphyrin IX (Por-1) and Zn-mesoporphyrin IX (Por-2), and chlorins, including chlorin e6 (Chl-1), chlorin e4 (Chl-2), and rhodin G7 (Chl-3), have been used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For porphyrin sensitizers that have vinyl groups at the β-positions, zinc coordinated Por-1 gives the highest solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (h) of up to 2.9%. Replacing the vinyl groups of ZnPor-1 with ethyl groups increases the open-circuit voltage (Voc) from 0.61 V to 0.66 V, but decreases the short-circuit current (Jsc) from 7.0 mA·cm−2 to 6.1 mA·cm−2 and the value of h to 2.8%. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations suggest that the higher Jsc values of Zn-based porphyrin sensitizers result from the favorable electron injection from the LUMO at higher energy levels. In the case of the chlorin sensitizers, the number of carboxyl protons has a large effect on the photovoltaic performance. Chl-2 with two carboxyl protons gives much higher values of Jsc, Voc, and h than does Chl-1 with three carboxyl protons. Replacing the protons of Chl-1 with sodium ions can substantially improve the photovoltaic performance of Chl-1-based solar cells. Furthermore, the sodium salt of Chl-3 with an aldehyde group at the C7 position shows poorer photovoltaic performance than does the sodium salt of Chl-1 with methyl groups at the C7 position. This is due to the low light-harvesting capability of Chl-3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Metalloporphyrins Supported on TiO2 Degussa P25
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 1149-1158; doi:10.3390/molecules17021149
Received: 21 November 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 25 January 2012
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (470 KB)
Abstract
The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu) adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25) surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were
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The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu) adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25) surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis) and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst (CuP-TiO2) showed excellent activity for the photodegradation of MO whether under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) charges analysis showed that methyl orange ion is adsorbed easier by CuP-TiO2 catalyst due to the increase of induced interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Halogen Substituents on the Catalytic Oxidation of 2,4,6-Halogenated Phenols by Fe(III)-Tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrins and Potassium Monopersulfate
Molecules 2012, 17(1), 48-60; doi:10.3390/molecules17010048
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 17 December 2011 / Accepted: 19 December 2011 / Published: 22 December 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (421 KB)
Abstract
The influence of halogen substituents on the catalytic oxidation of 2,4,6-trihalogenated phenols (TrXPs) by iron(III)-porphyrin/KHSO5 catalytic systems was investigated. Iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (FeTHP) and its supported variants were employed, where the supported catalysts were synthesized by introducing FeTHP into hydroquinone-derived humic acids
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The influence of halogen substituents on the catalytic oxidation of 2,4,6-trihalogenated phenols (TrXPs) by iron(III)-porphyrin/KHSO5 catalytic systems was investigated. Iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (FeTHP) and its supported variants were employed, where the supported catalysts were synthesized by introducing FeTHP into hydroquinone-derived humic acids via formaldehyde poly-condensation. F (TrFP), Cl (TrCP), Br (TrBP) and I (TrIP) were examined as halogen substituents for TrXPs. Although the supported catalysts significantly enhanced the degradation and dehalogenation of TrFP and TrCP, the oxidation of TrBP and TrIP was not enhanced, compared to the FeTHP catalytic system. These results indicate that the degree of oxidation of TrXPs is strongly dependent on the types of halogen substituent. The order of dehalogenation levels for halogen substituents in TrXPs was F > Cl > Br > I, consistent with their order of electronegativity. The electronegativity of a halogen substituent affects the nucleophilicity of the carbon to which it is attached. The levels of oxidation products in the reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane. The most abundant dimer product from TrFP via 2,6-difluoroquinone is consistent with a scenario where TrXP, with a more electronegative halogen substituent, is readily oxidized, while less electronegative halogen substituents are oxidized less readily by iron(III)-porphyrin/KHSO5 catalytic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Structural and Molecular Characterization of meso-Substituted Zinc Porphyrins: A DFT Supported Study
Molecules 2011, 16(12), 9957-9971; doi:10.3390/molecules16129957
Received: 2 November 2011 / Revised: 22 November 2011 / Accepted: 22 November 2011 / Published: 1 December 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (512 KB)
Abstract
Structural parameters of a range of over 100 meso-substituted zinc porphyrins were reviewed and compared to show how far the nature of the functional group may affect the interatomic distances and bond angles within the porphyrin core. It was proved that even
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Structural parameters of a range of over 100 meso-substituted zinc porphyrins were reviewed and compared to show how far the nature of the functional group may affect the interatomic distances and bond angles within the porphyrin core. It was proved that even despite evident deformations of the molecular structure, involving twisting of the porphyrin's central plane, the coupled π-bonding system remains flexible and stable. DFT calculations were applied to a number of selected porphyrins representative for the reviewed compounds to emphasize the relevance of theoretical methods in structural investigations of complex macrocyclic molecular systems. Experimental and DFT-simulated IR spectral data were reported and analyzed in context of the individual molecular features introduced by the meso substituents into the porphyrin moiety base. Raw experimental spectral data, including 1H- and 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and other relevant physicochemical details have been provided for a specially chosen reference zinc porphyrin functionalized by tert-butylphenyl groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Porphyrin-Dendrimers with a Pyrene in the Periphery and Their Cubic Nonlinear Optical Properties
Molecules 2011, 16(8), 6950-6968; doi:10.3390/molecules16086950
Received: 9 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1114 KB)
Abstract
Dendrons of pyrene derivatives were attached to a porphyrin core. A marked effect in solution for the dendrimers was observed in the absorption spectra. All the compounds obtained were characterized by 1H-, 13C-NMR, FTIR, UV-vis, MALDI-TOF or FAB+ mass spectrometry and
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Dendrons of pyrene derivatives were attached to a porphyrin core. A marked effect in solution for the dendrimers was observed in the absorption spectra. All the compounds obtained were characterized by 1H-, 13C-NMR, FTIR, UV-vis, MALDI-TOF or FAB+ mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The cubic nonlinear optical behavior of some the synthesized compounds was tested via Z-Scan measurements in spin-coated film samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Novel Cardanol-Porphyrin Hybrids and Their TiO2-Based Composites for the Photodegradation of 4-Nitrophenol in Water
Molecules 2011, 16(7), 5769-5784; doi:10.3390/molecules16075769
Received: 17 May 2011 / Revised: 24 June 2011 / Accepted: 1 July 2011 / Published: 7 July 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1324 KB)
Abstract
Cardanol, a well known hazardous byproduct of the cashew industry, has been used as starting material for the synthesis of useful differently substituted “cardanol-based” porphyrins and their zinc(II), copper(II), cobalt(II) and Fe(III) complexes. Novel composites prepared by impregnation of polycrystalline TiO2 powder
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Cardanol, a well known hazardous byproduct of the cashew industry, has been used as starting material for the synthesis of useful differently substituted “cardanol-based” porphyrins and their zinc(II), copper(II), cobalt(II) and Fe(III) complexes. Novel composites prepared by impregnation of polycrystalline TiO2 powder with an opportune amount of “cardanol-based” porphyrins, which act as sensitizers for the improvement of the photo-catalytic activity of the bare TiO2, have been used in the photodegradation in water of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), which is a toxic and bio-refractory pollutant, dangerous for ecosystems and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Crossed and Linked Histories of Tetrapyrrolic Macrocycles and Their Use for Engineering Pores within Sol-Gel Matrices
Molecules 2013, 18(1), 588-653; doi:10.3390/molecules18010588
Received: 26 October 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1857 KB)
Abstract
The crossed and linked histories of tetrapyrrolic macrocycles, interwoven with new research discoveries, suggest that Nature has found in these structures a way to ensure the continuity of life. For diverse applications porphyrins or phthalocyanines must be trapped inside solid networks, but due
[...] Read more.
The crossed and linked histories of tetrapyrrolic macrocycles, interwoven with new research discoveries, suggest that Nature has found in these structures a way to ensure the continuity of life. For diverse applications porphyrins or phthalocyanines must be trapped inside solid networks, but due to their nature, these compounds cannot be introduced by thermal diffusion; the sol-gel method makes possible this insertion through a soft chemical process. The methodologies for trapping or bonding macrocycles inside pristine or organo-modified silica or inside ZrO2 xerogels were developed by using phthalocyanines and porphyrins as molecular probes. The sizes of the pores formed depend on the structure, the cation nature, and the identities and positions of peripheral substituents of the macrocycle. The interactions of the macrocyclic molecule and surface Si-OH groups inhibit the efficient displaying of the macrocycle properties and to avoid this undesirable event, strategies such as situating the macrocycle far from the pore walls or to exchange the Si-OH species by alkyl or aryl groups have been proposed. Spectroscopic properties are better preserved when long unions are established between the macrocycle and the pore walls, or when oligomeric macrocyclic species are trapped inside each pore. When macrocycles are trapped inside organo-modified silica, their properties result similar to those displayed in solution and their intensities depend on the length of the alkyl chain attached to the matrix. These results support the prospect of tuning up the pore size, surface area, and polarity inside the pore cavities in order to prepare efficient catalytic, optical, sensoring, and medical systems. The most important feature is that research would confirm again that tetrapyrrolic macrocycles can help in the development of the authentic pore engineering in materials science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Open AccessReview Molecular Assemblies of Porphyrins and Macrocyclic Receptors: Recent Developments in Their Synthesis and Applications
Molecules 2012, 17(10), 11763-11799; doi:10.3390/molecules171011763
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 8 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metalloporphyrins which form the core of many bioenzymes and natural light harvesting or electron transport systems, exhibit a variety of selective functional properties depending on the state and surroundings with which they exist in biological systems. The specificity and ease with which they
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Metalloporphyrins which form the core of many bioenzymes and natural light harvesting or electron transport systems, exhibit a variety of selective functional properties depending on the state and surroundings with which they exist in biological systems. The specificity and ease with which they function in each of their bio-functions appear to be largely governed by the nature and disposition of the protein globule around the porphyrin reaction center. Synthetic porphyrin frameworks confined within or around a pre-organized molecular entity like the protein network in natural systems have attracted considerable attraction, especially in the field of biomimetic reactions. At the same time a large number of macrocyclic oligomers such as calixarenes, resorcinarenes, spherands, cyclodextrins and crown ethers have been investigated in detail as efficient molecular receptors. These molecular receptors are synthetic host molecules with enclosed interiors, which are designed three dimensionally to ensure strong and precise molecular encapsulation/recognition. Due to their complex structures, enclosed guest molecules reside in an environment isolated from the outside and as a consequence, physical properties and chemical reactions specific to that environment in these guest species can be identified. The facile incorporation of such molecular receptors into the highly photoactive and catalytically efficient porphyrin framework allows for convenient design of useful molecular systems with unique structural and functional properties. Such systems have provided over the years attractive model systems for the study of various biological and chemical processes, and the design of new materials and molecular devices. This review focuses on the recent developments in the synthesis of porphyrin assemblies associated with cyclodextrins, calixarenes and resorcinarenes and their potential applications in the fields of molecular encapsulation/recognition, and chemical catalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessReview Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10586-10613; doi:10.3390/molecules170910586
Received: 31 July 2012 / Revised: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (871 KB)
Abstract
The G-quadruplex, a four-stranded DNA structure with stacked guanine tetrads (G-quartets), has recently been attracting attention because of its critical roles in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the G-quadruplex functions as ligands for metal ions and aptamers for various molecules. Interestingly,
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The G-quadruplex, a four-stranded DNA structure with stacked guanine tetrads (G-quartets), has recently been attracting attention because of its critical roles in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the G-quadruplex functions as ligands for metal ions and aptamers for various molecules. Interestingly, the G-quadruplex can show peroxidase-like activity with an anionic porphyrin, iron (III) protoporphyrin IX (hemin). Importantly, hemin binds to G-quadruplexes with high selectivity over single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which is attributable to an electrostatic repulsion of phosphate groups in ssDNA and dsDNA. The G-quadruplex and hemin-G-quadruplex complex allow development of sensing techniques to detect DNA, metal ions and proteins. In addition to hemin, anionic phthalocyanines also bind to the G-quadruplex formed by human telomere DNA, specifically over ssDNA and dsDNA. Since the binding of anionic phthalocyanines to the G-quadruplex causes an inhibition of telomerase activity, which plays a role in the immortal growth of cancer cells, anionic phthalocyanines are promising as novel anticancer drug candidates. This review focuses on the specific binding of hemin and anionic phthalocyanines to G-quadruplexes and the applications in vitro and in vivo of this binding property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)

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