Effects of Vegetation on Rainfall

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecohydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2023) | Viewed by 10612

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
Interests: forest meteorology; forest hydrology; climate change; forest carbon estimation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Interests: hydrological modeling; climate change and land use/land cover change impact on water resources; eco-hydrology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Interests: extreme precipitation; climate change; flood and drought; water cycle

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vegetation and the water cycle are intrinsically coupled. Vegetation modifies land–surface properties, mediating the exchange of energy, moisture, trace gases, and aerosols between the land and the atmosphere. The influence of vegetation on precipitation is not only a traditional scientific question in hydrology, but also a controversial question. Vegetation plays an important role in regulating climate system on local, regional, and global scales through affecting land and atmosphere interactions. A large number of studies focus on the effect of precipitation on vegetation but ignore the effect of vegetation on precipitation. Vegetation transpiration is not only an important water vapor source of precipitation but also an important transfer station of water vapor transport.

In recent years, with the development of computer technology, remote sensing technology, and climate models, some studies have shown that it is not only tropical vegetation that has an important impact on precipitation but also temperate forests and even changes in arid area vegetation may affect atmospheric circulation and regional precipitation change.

Since the 1980s, widespread earth greening has been detected on global and regional scales; however, land degradation, such as deforestation, grass degradation/desertification and urbanization, is still very serious in some areas. Changes in land vegetation might alter the biogeophysical processes occurring between the land and atmosphere, which affects both local and larger-scale climatic systems. Therefore, this Special Issue is aimed at representing the latest advances on this scientific question. We welcome contributions in all fields relevant to vegetation–atmosphere interaction, ecohydrological modeling, hydrometeorological analysis, effects of land use on climate, remote sensing, as well as interdisciplinary studies. Specific topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Vegetation–atmosphere interaction
  • Water vapor transport and vegetation
  • Hydrological modeling of the effects of land use/land cover change
  • Effects of forest on precipitation and water cycle
  • Application of regional climate model
  • Remote sensing monitoring of large-scale vegetation and precipitation
  • Impacts of vegetation change on extreme climate
  • Drought and vegetation degradation or restoration

Prof. Dr. Zengxin Zhang
Dr. Xuchun Ye
Dr. Yixing Yin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • land use/land cover change
  • forests
  • precipitation
  • hydrologic and ecologic modeling
  • global and regional climate model
  • hydrometeorology
  • ecohydrology
  • water vapor

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 10211 KiB  
Article
Impact of Explicitly Parameterized Mid-to-Low Level Latent Heating on the Simulation of a Squall Line in South China
by Hai Chu, Mengjuan Liu, Leiming Ma, Xuwei Bao, Lanjun Zou and Jiakai Zhu
Water 2023, 15(9), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091743 - 30 Apr 2023
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Abstract
Organized mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), such as squall lines, are often poorly forecasted in numerical weather prediction models. In this study, experiments are performed to show that the vertical distribution of latent heating (LH) plays an important role in organizing a trailing-stratiform (TS) [...] Read more.
Organized mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), such as squall lines, are often poorly forecasted in numerical weather prediction models. In this study, experiments are performed to show that the vertical distribution of latent heating (LH) plays an important role in organizing a trailing-stratiform (TS) squall line over South China. We investigated the impact of modifying the altitude of LH peaking around 2–5 km on the squall line. It is found that increasing LH peaking at a lower vertical level (around 2–3 km) is crucial for the simulation of the TS squall line by influencing the evolution of the front-to-rear tilted upward flow and its associated mesoscale rear-to-front flow below. The influence of different LH profiles on the structure of the simulated squall line is explained using the Rotunno–Klemp–Weisman (RKW) theory considering the effects of different heights of the vertical wind center. Stronger LH at lower heights results in a vertical wind core centered lower in the convection region. Behind the core, at the mid-to-low level, is a region of descending negative horizontal vorticity. Such negative vorticity region favors a descending flow below it. When this mesoscale flow with low equivalent potential temperature (θe) descends and catches up with the convection at near-surface, it enhances both the strength and moving speed of the convection system. Results of this study highlight the sensitivities of the MCS structure to the vertical distribution of the thermodynamical field besides traditional cold pool aspects and provide insights for the study of squall line through shear convection interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Vegetation on Rainfall)
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16 pages, 1439 KiB  
Article
How Important Are Fog and the Cloud Forest as a Water Supply in Eastern Mexico?
by Antonio Sánchez-Falfan, Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez, Juan Cervantes-Pérez, Monica Ballinas and Victor L. Barradas
Water 2023, 15(7), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071286 - 24 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2456
Abstract
The water balance is the volume of water flowing through the hydrological cycle, and one of its main components is fog. Fog is considered a type of low-lying cloud and is heavily influenced by water bodies, topography, and wind conditions. Fog incorporates water [...] Read more.
The water balance is the volume of water flowing through the hydrological cycle, and one of its main components is fog. Fog is considered a type of low-lying cloud and is heavily influenced by water bodies, topography, and wind conditions. Fog incorporates water from the atmosphere to the terrestrial surface and for some ecosystems (e.g., cloud forests) represents a great water contribution. In this work, we aimed to answer the following questions: (1) What is the fog-water contribution to the water balance? (2) How does the presence of vegetation affect the water supply to the ecosystem? We took as a case study the Central Mountain Region of Veracruz, in eastern Mexico, and measured components of the water balance; this included precipitation (gross and net), fog water, interception, transpiration, evapotranspiration, and condensation, and we estimated water gain and loss of the water balance. We registered 510 precipitation events distributed throughout the year with three peaks (October, May, and January). Of these, 386 were fog events, 41 were rain events, and 83 were events combining fog and rain. Fog had a substantial contribution of water to the system, with a volume 22 times greater than that of rain (4311.14 mm vs. 197.5 mm). From the total water gain, the highest proportion (91%) was contributed by fog interception. Fog was considered a constant source of moisture throughout the year; however, water intercepted during the dry season was higher (56%) compared with the wet season (36%). Our results highlight the importance of the fog as a source of water for the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Vegetation on Rainfall)
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15 pages, 2740 KiB  
Article
The Rain-Induced Urban Waterlogging Risk and Its Evaluation: A Case Study in the Central City of Shanghai
by Lanjun Zou, Zhi Wang, Qinjing Lu, Shenglan Wu, Lei Chen and Zhengkun Qin
Water 2022, 14(22), 3780; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223780 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
Waterlogging induced by rain in urban areas has a potential risk impact on property and safety. This paper focuses on the impact of rain on waterlogging and evaluates the waterlogging risk in the central city of Shanghai. A simplified waterlogging depth model is [...] Read more.
Waterlogging induced by rain in urban areas has a potential risk impact on property and safety. This paper focuses on the impact of rain on waterlogging and evaluates the waterlogging risk in the central city of Shanghai. A simplified waterlogging depth model is developed in different areas with different drainage capacity and rainfall in consumption of simplifying the effect of complex terrain characteristics and hydrological situation. Based on urban waterlogging depth and its classification collection, a Rain-induced Urban Waterlogging Risk Model (RUWRM) is further established to evaluate waterlogging risk in the central city. The results show that waterlogging depth is closely linked with rainfall and drainage, with a linear relationship between them. More rainfall leads to higher waterlogging risk, especially in the central city with imperfect drainage facilities. Rain-induced urban waterlogging risk model can rapidly gives the waterlogging rank caused by rainfall with a clear classification collection. The results of waterlogging risk prediction indicate that it is confident to get the urban waterlogging risk rank well and truly in advance with more accurate rainfall prediction. This general study is a contribution that allows the public, policy makers and relevant departments of urban operation to assess the appropriate management to reduce traffic intensity and personal safety or strategy to lead to less waterlogging risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Vegetation on Rainfall)
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19 pages, 4553 KiB  
Article
Appraisal of Environmental Health and Ecohydrology of Free-Flowing Aghanashini River, Karnataka, India
by T. V. Ramachandra, Vinay Shivamurthy, Asulabha K. Subramanian, Sincy Varghese, Bharath Setturu and Bharath H. Aithal
Water 2022, 14(6), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060977 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3123
Abstract
Rivers are vital freshwater resources that cater to the needs of society. The burgeoning population and the consequent land-use changes have altered the hydrologic regime with biophysical and chemical integrity changes. This necessitates understanding the land-use dynamics, flow dynamics, hydrologic regime, and water [...] Read more.
Rivers are vital freshwater resources that cater to the needs of society. The burgeoning population and the consequent land-use changes have altered the hydrologic regime with biophysical and chemical integrity changes. This necessitates understanding the land-use dynamics, flow dynamics, hydrologic regime, and water quality of riverine ecosystems. An assessment of the land-use dynamics in the Aghanashini River basin reveals a decline in vegetation cover from 86.06% (1973) to 50.78% (2018). The computation of eco-hydrological indices (EHI) highlights that the sub-watersheds with native vegetation had higher infiltration (and storage) than water loss due to evapotranspiration and meeting the societal demand. The computation of water quality index helped to assess the overall water quality across seasons. The study provides insights into hydrology linkages with the catchment landscape dynamics to the hydrologists and land-use managers. These insights would aid in the prudent management of river basins to address water stress issues through watershed treatment involving afforestation with native species, appropriate cropping, and soil conservation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Vegetation on Rainfall)
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