Risks and Benefits of Human, Animal and Environmental Interactions: Application of the One Health Approach

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "One Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019) | Viewed by 11987

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Canada Research Chair in Epidemiology and One Health; Department of pathology and microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine & Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, École de Santé Publique de l'Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, Local 2202-35, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
Interests: infectious disease epidemiology; zoonoses; neglected tropical diseases; global health; Bayesian statistics; cysticercosis; One Health

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Guest Editor
Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire - Département de Pathologie et Microbiologie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
Interests: infectious diseases; zoonoses; neglected tropical diseases; vector-borne diseases; protozoan parasites; genomics; drug resistance; molecular diagnosis

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Guest Editor
École de santé publique - Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
Interests: infectious disease epidemiology; global health; vectorborne diseases; spatiotemporal models; impact evaluation; surveillance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on the health risks and benefits arising from the interaction among humans, animals and the environment, also called One Health.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infectious diseases are responsible for at least 15 million deaths worldwide each year. More than 60% of all infectious diseases and an even larger proportion of emerging infections are believed to be zoonotic. Several of these zoonotic diseases also involve vectors for transmission or are highly influenced by environmental and climatic factors. Moreover, most foodborne infections emerge at the interface between human, animals and the environment and it has been estimated that in 2010, 33 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were due to 31 foodborne disease hazards. Similarly, most neglected tropical diseases occur as the result of the infectious agent coming into contact with humans through animals or the environment. These infections also incur several million DALYs globally each year.

While research has concentrated on the negative aspects of the interface between humans, animals and the environment, this interface also results in important benefits to human health. For example, animal products are humans best source of protein, several programs have used zootherapy to encourage children with Autism or people with dementia to communicate with their environment, animals can be used as sentinel for the detection of chronic and infectious diseases in humans, and livestock remain the main livelihood of many people living in low income countries.

Improved diagnostic tools are needed to measure the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in all species and in the environment, to better understand the transmission dynamics of these infections and ultimately, to improve their control. There is also a need for enhanced epidemiological and statistical methods to incorporate the complex interactions between the three elements of the One Health. There is also a paucity of well-designed epidemiological studies conducted to measure the benefits of animal interactions with humans on overall health. Finally, there is an important need to develop and validate tools to measure both the risks and benefits that animals and the environment may have on human health.

Prof. Hélène Carabin
Prof. Christopher Fernandez Prada
Prof. Kate Zinszer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Zoonotic infections
  • One health
  • Zootherapy
  • Ecohealth
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Health adjusted life years
  • Health economics
  • Public health interventions
  • Disease transmission modelling

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

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19 pages, 1740 KiB  
Review
A Decade of Avian Influenza in Bangladesh: Where Are We Now?
by Nadia A. Rimi, Md. Zakiul Hassan, Sukanta Chowdhury, Mahmudur Rahman, Rebeca Sultana, Paritosh K. Biswas, Nitish C. Debnath, SK Shaheenur Islam and Allen G. Ross
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4030119 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5432
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been a public health threat in Bangladesh since the first reported outbreak in poultry in 2007. The country has undertaken numerous efforts to detect, track, and combat avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The predominant genotype of the H5N1 [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been a public health threat in Bangladesh since the first reported outbreak in poultry in 2007. The country has undertaken numerous efforts to detect, track, and combat avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The predominant genotype of the H5N1 viruses is clade 2.3.2.1a. The persistent changing of clades of the circulating H5N1 strains suggests probable mutations that might have been occurring over time. Surveillance has provided evidence that the virus has persistently prevailed in all sectors and caused discontinuous infections. The presence of AIV in live bird markets has been detected persistently. Weak biosecurity in the poultry sector is linked with resource limitation, low risk perception, and short-term sporadic interventions. Controlling avian influenza necessitates a concerted multi-sector ‘One Health’ approach that includes the government and key stakeholders. Full article
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8 pages, 1254 KiB  
Case Report
Cutaneous Pyogranulomas Associated with Nocardia jiangxiensis in a Cat from the Eastern Caribbean
by Adam Silkworth, Ryan Cavanaugh, Pompei Bolfa and Anne A.M.J. Becker
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040130 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5962
Abstract
Nocardia spp. are worldwide, ubiquitous zoonotic bacteria that have the ability to infect humans as well as domestic animals. Herein, we present a case of a five-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat (from the island of Nevis) with a history of a traumatic [...] Read more.
Nocardia spp. are worldwide, ubiquitous zoonotic bacteria that have the ability to infect humans as well as domestic animals. Herein, we present a case of a five-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat (from the island of Nevis) with a history of a traumatic skin wound on the ventral abdomen approximately two years prior to presenting to the Ross University Veterinary Clinic. The cat presented with severe dermatitis and cellulitis on the ventral caudal abdomen, with multiple draining tracts and sinuses exuding purulent material. Initial bacterial culture yielded Corynebacterum spp. The patient was treated symptomatically with antibiotics for 8 weeks. The cat re-presented 8 weeks after the initial visit with worsening of the abdominal lesions. Surgical intervention occurred at that time, and histopathology and tissue cultures confirmed the presence of Nocardia spp.-induced pyogranulomatous panniculitis, dermatitis, and cellulitis. Pre-operatively, the patient was found to be feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-positive. The patient was administered trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMS) after antimicrobial sensitivity testing. PCR amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed Nocardia jiangxiensis as the causative agent. To our knowledge, N. jiangxiensis has not been previously associated with disease. This case report aims to highlight the importance of a much-needed One Health approach using advancements in technology to better understand the zoonotic potential of Nocardia spp. worldwide. Full article
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