Recent Progress in Mosquito-Borne Diseases

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "Vector-Borne Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 3520

Special Issue Editors


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Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil
Interests: culicidae; ecology; biology; taxonomy; vectors; yellow fever; malaria
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Guest Editor
Laboratório de Diagnóstico Molecular e Hematologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941-913, Brazil
Interests: virology; infectious diseases diagnostics; molecular biology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research into mosquito-borne diseases has made significant strides in recent years. A spotlight has been cast on diseases like malaria, dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and Chikungunya. Alongside these are other overlooked infections, including West Nile fever, leishmaniasis, filariasis, and onchocerciasis.

Noteworthy advancements to combat these diseases span various domains, notably vector control technologies targeting mosquitoes like Aedes aegypti. These encompass strategies such as deploying genetically modified mosquitoes engineered to hinder disease transmission or curtail population sizes. Additionally, methods involving more efficient traps and discerning the efficiency of insecticides have been explored.

Enhancements in epidemiological surveillance systems have been instrumental, facilitating quicker outbreak detection and a more streamlined response. In this regard, mapping systems that trace mosquito presence and dissemination patterns have been used, thereby aiding informed decision making. Epidemiological insights stem from both entomological taxonomic studies and the application of molecular biology tools for identifying and classifying insects and pathogens.

Progress has been achieved in the development of vaccines against mosquito-borne illnesses by exploiting insights into diseases, their geographical spread, and genomic analysis. An example is the dengue vaccine, which has undergone clinical trials and been introduced in select endemic regions.

Climate change and urbanization must be factored in, as they also contribute to disease proliferation. Escalating temperatures and shifts in urban landscapes can impact the distribution of disease-carrying mosquitoes, heightening outbreak risks.

This Special Issue, devoted to recent strides in mosquito-borne diseases, seeks to unite high-quality contributions that further knowledge across diverse domains connected to mosquito research, including ecological facets, epidemiological controls, and clinical diagnostics using varied techniques.

Dr. Jeronimo Alencar
Dr. Sergio Lisboa Machado
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mosquito-borne disease
  • malaria
  • arbovirus
  • sequencing
  • molecular tools
  • vaccines
  • environment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 3508 KiB  
Communication
Applicability of Traps for Collecting Mosquito Immatures (Diptera: Culicidae) for Entomological Surveillance of Arbovirus Vectors in a Remnant of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
by Rayane Dias, Cecilia Ferreira de Mello, Shayenne Olsson Freitas Silva, Hélcio Reinaldo Gil-Santana, Ana Laura Carbajal-de-la-Fuente and Jeronimo Alencar
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(6), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9060125 - 29 May 2024
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Abstract
Diverse larval habitats significantly influence female mosquito oviposition. Utilizing traps that simulate these habitats is helpful in the study of the bioecology and characteristics of pathogen-transmitting species during oviposition. This study evaluated the feasibility of different traps in natural environments by comparing sampling [...] Read more.
Diverse larval habitats significantly influence female mosquito oviposition. Utilizing traps that simulate these habitats is helpful in the study of the bioecology and characteristics of pathogen-transmitting species during oviposition. This study evaluated the feasibility of different traps in natural environments by comparing sampling methods and detecting the oviposition of epidemiologically important mosquitoes, with emphasis on Haemagogus species, in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Monthly collections were conducted from March 2021 to October 2023 using four types of traps: plastic containers, tires, bamboo, and sapucaia. Immatures were collected from these traps using a pipette, placed in plastic bags, and transported to the laboratory. Tire was the most efficient trap, showing the highest mosquito abundance (n = 1239) and number of species (S = 11). Conversely, the plastic container trap exhibited the lowest diversity (H = 0.43), with only two species and a low mosquito abundance (n = 26). The bamboo trap captured six species and recorded the second-highest diversity index (H = 1.04), while the sapucaia trap captured five species and had the third-highest diversity index (H = 0.91). Of the total immatures collected, 1817 reached adulthood, comprising 13 species, two of which are vectors of the sylvatic yellow fever virus: Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Haemagogus janthinomys. In conclusion, detecting key vectors of the sylvatic yellow fever virus in Brazil highlights the need for ongoing entomological and epidemiological surveillance in the study area and its vicinity. These efforts are crucial for monitoring vector presence and activity, identifying potential transmission hotspots, and devising effective control and prevention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Mosquito-Borne Diseases)
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15 pages, 4727 KiB  
Article
High-Risk Areas for Congenital Zika Syndrome in Rio de Janeiro: Spatial Cluster Detection
by Danielle Amaral de Freitas, Mayumi Duarte Wakimoto, Sónia Dias and Reinaldo Souza-Santos
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(5), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9050105 - 7 May 2024
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Abstract
Brazil reported 18,282 suspected congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) cases up to 2018 and accounts for 61.4% of the total reported Zika cases in the Americas in the period. To detect high-risk areas for children with CZS in the city of Rio de Janeiro, [...] Read more.
Brazil reported 18,282 suspected congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) cases up to 2018 and accounts for 61.4% of the total reported Zika cases in the Americas in the period. To detect high-risk areas for children with CZS in the city of Rio de Janeiro, we used cluster detection and thematic maps. We analyzed data using a Poisson model in Satscan 10.1.3 software. We also analyzed the records of children with CZS from 2015 to 2016 to describe the clinical and epidemiological maternal and child profile, as well as live births in 2016 and the social development index (SDI) by neighborhood. In 2015 and 2016, the incidence rates of CZS were 8.84 and 46.96 per 100,000 live births in the city, respectively. Severe congenital findings such as microcephaly and brain damage, osteoarticular impairment, ocular abnormalities, and hearing loss were observed in 47 children. The spatial distribution of CZS was concentrated in the north and west zones in heterogeneous neighborhoods. The neighborhoods with the highest occurrence of CZS cases were found to have the worst SDIs. Stascan detected three spatial clusters in the north zone, where the SDI is lower. The clusters presented high relative risks for CZS (7.86, 1.46, and 2.08), although they were not statistically significant. Our findings highlight a higher occurrence of CZS in areas with less favorable socioeconomic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Mosquito-Borne Diseases)
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12 pages, 3754 KiB  
Article
Bioecological Aspects of Species of the Subgenus Mansonia (Mansonia) (Diptera: Culicidae) Prior to the Installation of Hydroelectric Dams on the Madeira River, Rondônia State, Brazil
by Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira, Fábio Medeiros da Costa, Ayrton Sena Gouveia, Rosemary Aparecida Roque, Wanderli Pedro Tadei and Vera Margarete Scarpassa
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(10), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8100479 - 22 Oct 2023
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate ecological aspects of Mansonia species before the construction of hydroelectric plants on the Madeira River, and thus enable the assessment of the impact of these projects on mosquitoes. A total of 199 samplings were carried [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate ecological aspects of Mansonia species before the construction of hydroelectric plants on the Madeira River, and thus enable the assessment of the impact of these projects on mosquitoes. A total of 199 samplings were carried out between November 2003 and August 2004, using the technique of attraction with protection. Temporal distribution was evaluated from monthly incidence values obtained from the bite index per man/hour. Relative abundance was subsequently calculated to evaluate the spatial distribution of species, according to land use and municipal districts; furthermore, the pattern of hematophagous activity was evaluated from 12-h and 4-h samplings. The data were analyzed according to the negative binomial distribution and generalized linear models to estimate the influence of environmental factors on the presence and abundance of Mansonia. A total of 1479 specimens were collected, distributed among four species—Mansonia titillans (87%), Mansonia humeralis (6.3%), Mansonia amazonensis (6%), and Mansonia indubitans (0.5%), and spatial distribution analysis showed Ma. titillans to be dominant. Hematophagous activity had peaks between 6:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m. and species incidence was higher during the rainy season and in areas where domestic animals are raised. Therefore, the region studied presented characteristics favorable to the reproduction of Mansonia even before the construction of the hydroelectric plants and after construction, these conditions were enhanced, due to the increase in the availability of breeding sites for immatures and blood sources for females, as a consequence of changes in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Mosquito-Borne Diseases)
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