Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis

A special issue of Religions (ISSN 2077-1444). This special issue belongs to the section "Religions and Health/Psychology/Social Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2023) | Viewed by 17004

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Catholic Faculty of Theology, University of Zagreb, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: catechetics; religious education; education and values
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Catholic Faculty of Theology, University of Zagreb, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: philosophy and theology; philosophy of culture; wisdom education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Religions is dedicated to the topic of religious education and aesthetics, or the path of beauty (via pulchritudinis). It is a topic that we can understand very broadly and that encompasses different dimensions of the relationship between religion—especially the Christian faith—and art. The goal is, on the one hand, to deepen knowledge about theology, beauty and art, as well as their interaction. On the other hand, we want to explore the via pulchritudinis as a privileged path of evangelization, religious education and dialogue.

Culture and art have always been woven into theological considerations. Contemporary popes as well as the Pontifical Council for Culture have emphasized the complementarity of art and religion and highlighted the importance of the via pulchritudinis for dialogue and the transmission of faith. Even ancient philosophy promotes the ideal of the unity of truth, good and beauty as a path towards the greatest Good. A work of art can open the eyes of the mind and heart, and direct the human spirit towards transcendence. Artistic beauty awakens inner emotion, evokes rapture in silence and leads to "coming out of oneself", to ecstasy. This especially comes to the fore in the context of the liturgy, in which artistic creative transfiguration and transformation of thinking and action pervade. For believers, however, beauty goes beyond the question of aesthetics. Every work of Christian art, such as paintings and mosaics, sculptures and architecture, works of poetry and prose, music and dance, as well as photography, film and theatre pieces, is a reality that points to the admiration of the Absolute and, thus, to a deeper discovery of meaning.

Works of art of Christian inspiration, which constitute a significant part of the artistic and cultural heritage of humanity, arouse considerable interest among people of different origins. At the same time, there is a growing lack of knowledge of the content and meaning of religious culture, which is also true for Christian art. In fact, the common character of religion and art is the language of symbols. Religious education plays an indispensable role in understanding the depth of symbolic meanings. Therefore, within the framework of religious education, special attention should be paid to the path of beauty. However, the criterion of its authenticity cannot be only aesthetic. Authentic beauty must be distinguished from the seemingly beautiful but empty forms and from the superficiality of kitsch. Beauty is inextricably linked with goodness and truth. Contemplating beauty evokes feelings of joy, satisfaction and fullness, opening a person to transcendence. Therefore, it is necessary to sensitize catechists, pastoral workers and theologians to the path of beauty so that their preaching could lead to divine beauty.

Papers that explore and present the relationship between theology and art and the relationship between the path of beauty, evangelization, religious education and dialogue are more than welcome. Theologians, philosophers, artists, historians and religious educators are invited to publish their papers in this Special Issue.

Original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following: 

  • Catechesis, evangelization and via pulchritudinis
  • Theology and art
  • The power of imagery in religious education
  • Methods of working with imagery in religious education
  • Aesthetic learning
  • Sacred and religious art
  • Efforts in the promotion of sacred art
  • Contemplation (prayer) and beauty
  • Via pulchritudinis as a privileged path of dialogue
  • Languages of Christian art and beauty
  • Biblical literacy in understanding Christian art
  • Formal and substantive aspects of sacred and religious art
  • Art and kitsch
  • The speech of symbols in art and religion
  • Creativity and imagination in art and religion
  • Cultural and artistic heritage of the Church in evangelization and catechesis
  • Sensitization of pastoral workers, catechists and religious education teachers for Christian art
  • Critical evaluation of different aesthetic models in the context of religious education and theology
  • Synthesis of faith and culture within the religious and sacred art of the local Church
  • Art in liturgy
  • Aesthetic and religious experience
  • Communication of religious truth through a work of art

We request that, prior to submitting a manuscript, interested authors initially submit a proposed title and an abstract of 400–600 words summarizing their intended contribution. Please send it to the guest editors ([email protected]; [email protected]) or to the Religions editorial office ([email protected]). Abstracts will be reviewed by the guest editors for the purposes of ensuring proper fit within the scope of the Special Issue. Full manuscripts will undergo double-blind peer-review.

Prof. Dr. Ružica Razum
Dr. Nenad Malović
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Religions is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • via pulchritudinis
  • religious education
  • theology of beauty
  • religious art
  • culture
  • Christian art

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 150 KiB  
Editorial
The Way of Beauty as a Path to Good and Truth
by Ružica Razum and Nenad Malović
Religions 2024, 15(6), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel15060700 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
This Special Issue is dedicated to the topic of religious education and aesthetics, or the path of beauty (via pulchritudinis) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

13 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
The Question of Beauty and the Aesthetic Value of the Image of the Mother of God in Pastoral Care and Catechesis
by Mateja Pevec Rozman and Tadej Strehovec
Religions 2024, 15(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel15010101 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Ancient philosophers attached great importance to the ideals of unity, truth, goodness, and beauty as the path to the greatest good. Beauty expressed through works of art can open the eyes of the mind and heart and direct the human spirit to transcendence. [...] Read more.
Ancient philosophers attached great importance to the ideals of unity, truth, goodness, and beauty as the path to the greatest good. Beauty expressed through works of art can open the eyes of the mind and heart and direct the human spirit to transcendence. The beauty of art awakens inner emotionality, evokes elation in silence, and leads to “coming out of oneself”. The concept of beauty is inextricably linked to Catholic theology and preaching. Beautiful sacred images were a source of theological messages, intercession, and entry into the transcendental world. Medieval Gothic cathedrals had images on the walls as a basic tool of catechesis. Even in today’s teaching of young people, images play a crucial role. The world of symbols enables Christians to connect everyday life experiences with theological messages. The image of the Virgin Mary is the best example of recognizing personal life situations, with the story of a mother who loved her child, accepted the suffering and death of her own son, and together with St. Joseph formed a holy family, which is the image of an imperfect family in which each person recognizes himself. All these aspects of the life of the Virgin Mary could form the basic concepts of the Christian understanding of beauty. In modern thought, the concept of beauty is understood quite narrowly (we are talking about narrowing the meaning of the concept of beauty). In the first part of this paper, we focus on the philosophical concept of beauty with a brief historical overview, then we point out the difference between transcendental beauty and aesthetic beauty. Beauty appeals to the human being and opens the heart to the transcendent, to God, who is the source and fullness of beauty, beauty itself. The originality of the article is in its presentation of the understanding of the Christian concept of beauty through the figure and image of Mary, the Mother of God. The experience of the beauty of Mary and Mary’s life story enables the believer to have a different perspective on the perception of his own life and thereby opens him to the transcendent, to a personal relationship with God, who is eternal Beauty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
21 pages, 346 KiB  
Article
“Beauty Ideals” from a Christian, Educational and Media Perspective: Dangers, Challenges and Opportunities in the Croatian Educational System
by Danijel Labaš, Lana Ciboci Perša and Ivan Uldrijan
Religions 2024, 15(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel15010029 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Today’s children are growing up and spending most of their free time with media, especially social networks, on which various lifestyles are imposed every day, including ideals of beauty that are often based on physical appearance and far from authentic images of the [...] Read more.
Today’s children are growing up and spending most of their free time with media, especially social networks, on which various lifestyles are imposed every day, including ideals of beauty that are often based on physical appearance and far from authentic images of the observed object. In this paper, it is shown how the topic of beauty is presented throughout the history of art, with a special focus on the presentation of beauty in theology. Additionally, the paper investigates how much the topic of beauty is treated within the Croatian formal education system, with a particular emphasis on the representation of beauty and to what extent children are prepared to critically evaluate the representation of beauty in different types of media, but also to reflect on the potential impact of such content on themselves. Research has shown that most such content is present in the subjects of Visual Culture, Visual Arts, Croatian Language and Informatics. The paper also presents such contents in the Catholic religious education curricula. In addition to imposed media ideals of beauty affecting childrens’ self-confidence, they are often the subject of peer violence, especially in the virtual world. Specifically, humiliation based on physical appearance is a common form of cyberbullying. To determine how physical appearance is used in such unacceptable behavior among children, all the posts that have arrived on UHO, the first online platform for the prevention of cyberbullying in Croatia, were analyzed. Research has shown that girls report such forms of abuse more often than boys, that cyberbullying based on appearance most often occurs inside closed groups or private messages rather than publicly on social networks, and that children rarely report to adults that they are the victims of such forms of violence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
18 pages, 332 KiB  
Article
Man as a “Work of Art”: The Religious–Dialogical Dimension of Education as a Path of Education for Beauty/Goodness
by Ružica Razum and Nenad Malović
Religions 2023, 14(11), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14111437 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Aiming to establish a dialogue with modern man, who lives in a culture marked by great challenges, church documents put a great emphasis on the via pulchritudinis. The via pulchritudinis, i.e., the way of beauty, is considered to be a privileged way of [...] Read more.
Aiming to establish a dialogue with modern man, who lives in a culture marked by great challenges, church documents put a great emphasis on the via pulchritudinis. The via pulchritudinis, i.e., the way of beauty, is considered to be a privileged way of achieving dialogue. Awareness of the importance of beauty, in close connection with goodness and truth, is increasingly present in the theological and the religious–pedagogical thought. One of the specific questions related to education for beauty refers to the education of a person who is called to transform his or her life into a “work of art”. This paper reflects on only one specific aspect of the issue of shaping human beauty/goodness, that is, people’s “humanity”, in connection with the challenges of increasingly complex coexistence in diversity. Globalization and migration trends, primarily by complicating life together/coexistence, pose certain challenges to man as an individual, as well as to the entire society, especially the challenge that is coexistence of different cultures and religions. Since these problems also penetrate school classrooms, education systems are expected to provide appropriate responses. The paper consists of two parts. In the theoretical part, two specific fundamental issues related to the education of a person’s “humanity” in the atmosphere of “conflict culture” are considered: the issue of comprehensive education following the ancient connection of beauty and goodness, as well as the issue of education for coexistence. The second part presents the results of the research which was carried out in the Republic of Croatia and which aimed to examine the presence of curriculum content that enables the acquisition of religious–dialogical competence, using the method of text analysis. In more exact terms, faced with the challenges that arise from a society burdened with misunderstanding, violence and hostility, often linked with a religious affiliation and worldviews, we ask ourselves the following question: to what extent is the contemporary education system in the Republic of Croatia, at the level of its curricula, open to the comprehensive development of students, especially in terms of the development of the religious–dialogical dimension, necessary for living a good and beautiful life in the modern multicultural and multireligious world? The results reveal a different, mostly insufficient, openness of the curriculum to the religious dimension of intercultural education. That is one of the reasons why the education system does not seem to be open to the development of the knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary for a harmonious and “beautiful” coexistence in modern society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
19 pages, 923 KiB  
Article
Beauty as a Gift and a Call to Goodness
by Taras Barščevski
Religions 2023, 14(11), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14111429 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1173
Abstract
The study delves into terminologies associated with beauty within biblical contexts. Drawing from Dyrness’s examination of “Aesthetics in the Old Testament” the focus is primarily on seven Hebrew word groups to understand the multifaceted nuances of beauty. The exploration further extends to two [...] Read more.
The study delves into terminologies associated with beauty within biblical contexts. Drawing from Dyrness’s examination of “Aesthetics in the Old Testament” the focus is primarily on seven Hebrew word groups to understand the multifaceted nuances of beauty. The exploration further extends to two foundational Hebrew terms, kābôd and tôḇ, essential for grasping the essence of beauty in the Old Testament. Additionally, three Greek terms from the Septuagint—agathós, kalós, and chresós—are explored, bridging the understanding between the deuterocanonical books, the New Testament, and their Hebrew counterparts. It has highlighted that understanding the biblical concept of beauty surpasses mere terminological exploration. Illustratively, the narratives of Judith and Esther are examined to demonstrate how their beauty played a strategic role in the welfare and salvation of the people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
14 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Images as a Resource for Catholic Theology
by Nedjeljka Valerija Kovač
Religions 2023, 14(10), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14101316 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
The aim of this article is to demonstrate why Catholic theology should actively engage with artistic images and elucidate how they could serve as a valuable resource for theological knowledge and content. The discussion is articulated in three distinct steps. Firstly, drawing from [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to demonstrate why Catholic theology should actively engage with artistic images and elucidate how they could serve as a valuable resource for theological knowledge and content. The discussion is articulated in three distinct steps. Firstly, drawing from theological-historical perspectives within Christian tradition, it is shown that certain images possess significant theological potential. There have been various forms of interaction between theology and the visual representation of faith. The second step discusses the gradual reduction of theological reflection towards rational and conceptual cognition. The author relies predominantly on inner-theological arguments to advocate for the necessity of expanding the intellectual and conceptual horizons of contemporary Catholic theology so as to include the aesthetic dimension. In the final, third part, these insights are substantiated through the examination of two examples from contemporary Catholic theology: the works of Alex Stock and Peter Hofmann, exploring how artistic images can enrich systematic theology by serving as a “locus theologicus”. In conclusion, the author asserts that images have the potential to expand and concretize abstracted topics within dogmatic theology. They can also facilitate the reintegration of fragmented theological disciplines and forge a more direct link between theology and the lived experience of faith. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
13 pages, 7819 KiB  
Article
Attempts to Communicate the Transcendent in Contemporary Art: An Artist’s Point of View
by Ivana Gagić Kičinbači
Religions 2023, 14(10), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14101279 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2122
Abstract
The article investigates attempts in contemporary art to convey transcendent realities through the lens of the artist. This study examines three key moments of the artistic creative process: intuition, asceticism, and silence. The article assesses silence or stillness as a specific mental state [...] Read more.
The article investigates attempts in contemporary art to convey transcendent realities through the lens of the artist. This study examines three key moments of the artistic creative process: intuition, asceticism, and silence. The article assesses silence or stillness as a specific mental state that enables us to evaluate reality with a heightened awareness of our own length, fragility, and the infinite that awaits us on the other side of existence. In artistic practice, silence is a prerequisite for authenticity, believability, and creativity. The article explores the possibility of uncovering and revealing the transcendent via matter through the author’s own artistic inquiry. It discusses art as a master of transforming material, psychological, and physical facts into shapes that hint at what is beyond what the eye or ear can perceive. Art can lead to the sublime and open the mind, eyes, and heart to that which is beyond. The expression of the transcendent through artistic action is observed by analyzing the relationship between the artist and intuitive knowledge in the artistic practices of contemporary and modern artists. Along with the qualitative method of narrative research, research methodologies specific to the artistic field (visual arts) were predominately used, expanding the boundaries of qualitative research by taking a holistic approach closer to the very nature of the artistic process and allowing for a more complete understanding of the process itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
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11 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Visual and Artistic Expressions in the Service of Catechesis
by Denis Barić
Religions 2023, 14(10), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14101259 - 4 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
Over the course of history, humans have had a deep need to express themselves not only through words but also through images. Furthermore, images and artworks have the potential to serve as a path to God. This article aims to explore the presence [...] Read more.
Over the course of history, humans have had a deep need to express themselves not only through words but also through images. Furthermore, images and artworks have the potential to serve as a path to God. This article aims to explore the presence of images and artistic expressions in catechesis and their role in education and growth in faith throughout a person’s life. In this regard, the article is structured into three sections, also including an introduction and a conclusion. The first section elaborates on the power of imagery in today’s world, emphasising the human need to express oneself visually as well as verbally and highlighting the significance of all factors that contribute to the interpretation and understanding of images. The second section discusses catechesis, which serves the purpose of an individual’s education and growth in faith, emphasising various methods and ways of teaching in faith. This section also underscores the place and role of images and works of art in the history of the Church and in catechisms. Finally, the third section highlights the importance of aesthetic and artistic formation among all participants in catechesis, whereby the images and artworks are used to facilitate a better understanding and experience of the faith and its content in all its beauty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
14 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Spirituality of Artistic Service
by Ivan Dodlek
Religions 2023, 14(9), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14091184 - 17 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
In the document Letter of his Holiness Pope John Paul II to Artists, John Paul II pointed out that artists, with their creation, perform a professional social service for the benefit of the common good through the “spirituality of artistic service”, which, [...] Read more.
In the document Letter of his Holiness Pope John Paul II to Artists, John Paul II pointed out that artists, with their creation, perform a professional social service for the benefit of the common good through the “spirituality of artistic service”, which, through the perspective of “educational art,” contributes to the life and revival of the individual and society. Since that document does not specify what a model of such spirituality would consist of, the goal of this paper is to offer a proposal for the theoretical elaboration of its potential framework. The topic is discussed from the perspective of Christian theological aesthetics. The starting point for the development of the spirituality of the artistic service model is Christian artistic creation. The indicated theoretical framework of the spirituality of artistic service is based on three dimensions of Christian artistic creation. The first represents Christian artistic creation that points to the depths of the mystery of the sacred through Christian symbols. The second dimension of Christian artistic creation relies on the contemporary form of religious imagery in changed cultural circumstances in order to adequately present a transcendent perspective of the meaning of existence. The third dimension of Christian artistic creation awakens admiration in the recipients through artistic contemplation, thus enabling a spiritual transformation and serving as the bearer of eschatological hope. In the end, it is shown that this model of spirituality in artistic service can serve as a good theoretical framework for the implementation of three new dimensions of Christian art suitable for the contemporary cultural environment: mystagogic, existential, and contemplative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
15 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
The Benefits of Music in Teaching Catholic Religious Education in Croatia
by Jadranka Garmaz and Sara Dodig Baučić
Religions 2023, 14(9), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14091175 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Music viewed from the real praxis could trigger positive religious emotions as the path of beauty in those searching for the meaning of life or the higher one in God. The article aims to encourage interdisciplinarity in teaching Catholic RE in Croatia, presenting [...] Read more.
Music viewed from the real praxis could trigger positive religious emotions as the path of beauty in those searching for the meaning of life or the higher one in God. The article aims to encourage interdisciplinarity in teaching Catholic RE in Croatia, presenting many benefits of music and examples of positive practices that music can encourage in students. The main purpose of this paper, after recognizing the needs and difficulties of interdisciplinary teaching primarily for teachers in Croatia, is to create a model of implementing music content efficiently in Catholic religious education (RE) in Croatia. The research finds the necessity to unite experts from three fields to make interdisciplinary teaching efficient and progressively constructive: religious education pedagogy and music pedagogy combined with music practice itself through professional conductors. Nevertheless, the text seeks to expose an easily applicable model that leads to efficient and progressive interdisciplinary teaching, which is also the main aim of the work. The research is significant as this model could be examined in different subject areas, highlighting that singing in class could encourage religious sensibility and help improve spiritual and religious competencies. The research findings showed that the advantages and specifics of choral singing could be integrated into the religious education curriculum, making RE more dynamic and challenging for students. The research is based on a literature review, a data analysis, as well as participant observation (teacher and conductor) as methods to prove advantages and possibilities of how to implement music into the RE curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
20 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Children as a Reflection of Transcendence in the Filmography of Andrei Tarkovsky
by Irena Sever Globan and Marin Pavelić
Religions 2023, 14(9), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14091138 - 5 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Andrej Tarkovsky is a Russian film author who has indebted the entire world’s cinematography with his cinematic style. His (auto)biography and filmography give us a hint that he was a deeply religious man who believed that art should serve to deepen man’s spirituality. [...] Read more.
Andrej Tarkovsky is a Russian film author who has indebted the entire world’s cinematography with his cinematic style. His (auto)biography and filmography give us a hint that he was a deeply religious man who believed that art should serve to deepen man’s spirituality. By watching and analyzing the author’s films, we came to the hypothesis that Tarkovsky uses the characters of children to express something supernatural, and therefore, we wanted to explore which narratives and stylistic devices the director uses to give his interpretation of the spiritual and transcendent. Thus, we analyzed nine characters of children that appear in the director’s six full-length feature films: Ivan Bondarev (Ivan’s Childhood), Boriska (Andrei Rublev), Aleksej, Ignat and Asafjev (Mirror), Marta (Stalker), Domenico’s son and Angela (Nostalghia), and Gossen (The Sacrifice). The methods we have used are qualitative content analysis, description, comparison, and synthesis. The characteristics we have noticed in the characters of the children, which could point to the transcendent, are a deep and penetrating gaze, the supernatural powers children use, the mysterious environments they inhabit, the deep influence they have on other characters, asking religious questions, hermit-like loneliness, modest clothes, and allusions to a Christ-like figure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
24 pages, 3380 KiB  
Article
On the Ontic Origin of Art: Can Art Tell Us Anything about God?
by Antonia Čačić
Religions 2023, 14(8), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14080962 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Heidegger’s ontological differentiation and Derrida’s deconstruction of metaphysics rearranged the key players of the onto-stage, essence, being, existence, and entity (the being), which had an impact on the contemporary understanding of ontology. This paper focuses on the study of the origins of art, [...] Read more.
Heidegger’s ontological differentiation and Derrida’s deconstruction of metaphysics rearranged the key players of the onto-stage, essence, being, existence, and entity (the being), which had an impact on the contemporary understanding of ontology. This paper focuses on the study of the origins of art, but also on the ontological matter to the extent to which it might be related to the matter of art. It appears that the origins of both ontology and art are at the core of this interaction. The ontological matter is connected to the issue of art in the way that questions: what if freedom, in a co-creative way, is that which is immutable and fundamental to being? What if the essence of being is the freedom of co-creating? Such an essence would always be capable of alteration (via co-creation) and transformation. It is important to note that the perception of form in art, as an experiment of the form, i.e., continuous movement and growth from the conventional to the unconventional, will also be examined. This artistic observation emphasizes the relational dynamics within a work of art, shifting the focus from its “objectivity” (an ontological perspective) to its inherent relational nature (an ontic perspective). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religious Education and Via Pulchritudinis)
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