Genetic Mechanisms Underpinning Floral Architecture

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020) | Viewed by 17811

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, 80126 Napoli, Italy
Interests: evolutionary genetics; flower development genes; gene expression; genomics; Orchidaceae; transcriptomics

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Guest Editor
Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology (CBMA), University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Interests: plant reproduction; plant development and evo-devo; flowering; transcriptional regulation; plant genetics and genomics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The study of the molecular basis of flower formation is one of the main objectives of plant developmental genetics. Since the early 1990s, when the first genes involved in flower development were identified in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus, great efforts have been made to understand the molecular genetic pathways that control flower architecture. The dissection of the genetic mechanisms underlying flowering time, establishment of floral symmetry, flower organ formation, and color patterning has clarified various aspects of the complex molecular networks involved in the origin and formation of the flower. Recent advancements in high-throughput sequencing are rapidly expanding insights into floral development of model and nonmodel species, and comparative genomics and transcriptomics are shedding light on the origin and evolution of the flower, one of the key innovations of angiosperms.

In this Special Issue, we are inviting reviews, perspectives, and original research articles to advance our knowledge related to molecular mechanisms regulating floral architecture in model and nonmodel species. Topics will include but not be limited to role and evolution of genes involved in flower ontogenesis, function of regulatory modules, and microRNAs in flower formation, genomics, and transcriptomics to unravel molecular pathways of flower development.

Dr. Serena Aceto
Dr. Maria Manuela Ribeiro Costa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Flower development
  • Floral symmetry
  • microRNAs
  • Plant evo–devo
  • Plant genomics
  • Transcriptional regulation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3975 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification of YABBY Genes in Orchidaceae and Their Expression Patterns in Phalaenopsis Orchid
by You-Yi Chen, Yu-Yun Hsiao, Song-Bin Chang, Diyang Zhang, Si-Ren Lan, Zhong-Jian Liu and Wen-Chieh Tsai
Genes 2020, 11(9), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11090955 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5471
Abstract
The plant YABBY transcription factors are key regulators in the lamina development of lateral organs. Orchid is one of the largest families in angiosperm and known for their unique floral morphology, reproductive biology, and diversified lifestyles. However, nothing is known about the role [...] Read more.
The plant YABBY transcription factors are key regulators in the lamina development of lateral organs. Orchid is one of the largest families in angiosperm and known for their unique floral morphology, reproductive biology, and diversified lifestyles. However, nothing is known about the role of YABBY genes in orchids, although biologists have never lost their fascination with orchids. In this study, a total of 54 YABBY genes, including 15 genes in CRC/DL, eight in INO, 17 in YAB2, and 14 in FIL clade, were identified from the eight orchid species. A sequence analysis showed that all protein sequences encoded by these YABBY genes share the highly conserved C2C2 zinc-finger domain and YABBY domain (a helix-loop-helix motif). A gene structure analysis showed that the number of exons is highly conserved in the same clades. The genes in YAB2 clade have six exons, and genes in CRC/DL, INO, and FIL have six or seven exons. A phylogenetic analysis showed all 54 orchid YABBY genes could be classified into four major clades, including CRC/DL, INO, FIL, and YAB2. Many of orchid species maintain more than one member in CRC/DL, FIL, and YAB2 clades, implying functional differentiation among these genes, which is supported by sequence diversification and differential expression. An expression analysis of PhalaenopsisYABBY genes revealed that members in the CRC/DL clade have concentrated expressions in the early floral development stage and gynostemium, the fused male and female reproductive organs. The expression of PeINO is consistent with the biological role it played in ovule integument morphogenesis. Transcripts of members in the FIL clade could be obviously detected at the early developmental stage of the flowers. The expression of three genes, PeYAB2,PeYAB3, and PeYAB4, in the YAB2 clade could be revealed both in vegetative and reproductive tissues, and PeYAB4 was transcribed at a relatively higher level than that of PeYAB2 and PeYAB3. Together, this comprehensive analysis provides the basic information for understanding the function of the YABBY gene in Orchidaceae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Mechanisms Underpinning Floral Architecture)
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24 pages, 2819 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional Structure of Petunia Clock in Leaves and Petals
by Marta I. Terry, Marta Carrera-Alesina, Julia Weiss and Marcos Egea-Cortines
Genes 2019, 10(11), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10110860 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3681
Abstract
The plant circadian clock coordinates environmental signals with internal processes including secondary metabolism, growth, flowering, and volatile emission. Plant tissues are specialized in different functions, and petals conceal the sexual organs while attracting pollinators. Here we analyzed the transcriptional structure of the petunia [...] Read more.
The plant circadian clock coordinates environmental signals with internal processes including secondary metabolism, growth, flowering, and volatile emission. Plant tissues are specialized in different functions, and petals conceal the sexual organs while attracting pollinators. Here we analyzed the transcriptional structure of the petunia (Petunia x hybrida) circadian clock in leaves and petals. We recorded the expression of 13 clock genes in petunia under light:dark (LD) and constant darkness (DD). Under light:dark conditions, clock genes reached maximum expression during the light phase in leaves and the dark period in petals. Under free running conditions of constant darkness, maximum expression was delayed, especially in petals. Interestingly, the rhythmic expression pattern of PhLHY persisted in leaves and petals in LD and DD. Gene expression variability differed among leaves and petals, time of day and photoperiod. The transcriptional noise was higher especially in leaves under constant darkness. We found that PhPRR7, PhPRR5, and PhGI paralogs showed changes in gene structure including exon number and deletions of CCT domain of the PRR family. Our results revealed that petunia petals presented a specialized clock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Mechanisms Underpinning Floral Architecture)
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Review

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14 pages, 2209 KiB  
Review
Radial or Bilateral? The Molecular Basis of Floral Symmetry
by Francesca Lucibelli, Maria Carmen Valoroso and Serena Aceto
Genes 2020, 11(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040395 - 6 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 8101
Abstract
In the plant kingdom, the flower is one of the most relevant evolutionary novelties. Floral symmetry has evolved multiple times from the ancestral condition of radial to bilateral symmetry. During evolution, several transcription factors have been recruited by the different developmental pathways in [...] Read more.
In the plant kingdom, the flower is one of the most relevant evolutionary novelties. Floral symmetry has evolved multiple times from the ancestral condition of radial to bilateral symmetry. During evolution, several transcription factors have been recruited by the different developmental pathways in relation to the increase of plant complexity. The MYB proteins are among the most ancient plant transcription factor families and are implicated in different metabolic and developmental processes. In the model plant Antirrhinum majus, three MYB transcription factors (DIVARICATA, DRIF, and RADIALIS) have a pivotal function in the establishment of floral dorsoventral asymmetry. Here, we present an updated report of the role of the DIV, DRIF, and RAD transcription factors in both eudicots and monocots, pointing out their functional changes during plant evolution. In addition, we discuss the molecular models of the establishment of flower symmetry in different flowering plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Mechanisms Underpinning Floral Architecture)
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