Advances in New Energy Materials and Fire Safety

A special issue of Fire (ISSN 2571-6255). This special issue belongs to the section "Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Fire".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 4 September 2024 | Viewed by 4706

Special Issue Editors

School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
Interests: fire science; combustion characteristics; phase-change material; fire retardant; electrochemical power source
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
Interests: flow; combustion models; calculation

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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
Interests: lithium–ion battery safety; battery thermal management; fire hazards; phase-change material; thermal runaway propagation
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: computational fluid dynamics; lithium–ion batteries; numerical analysis; machine learning; battery thermal management system; energy storage safety; fire risks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global energy shortage issues are becoming increasingly prominent, with higher demand for the development of new energy materials, which have seen substantial development in recent years and become an important component in power sources such as Li/Na/K/Mg/Ca/Zn/Al metal/ion batteries, metal/air batteries, secondary batteries, solar cells, hydrogen/solid oxide fuel cells, nuclear energy, and more. Some advanced materials exhibit excellent electrochemical properties, such as high energy density, large capacity, and long-life cycling performance. However, the safety of new energy materials is attracting more and more attention due to the frequent occurrence of fire accidents caused by thermal runaway of power sources. We are pleased to invite you to present or discuss the advances in fire characteristics of new energy materials in this Special Issue.

This Special Issue aims to investigate the fire safety of new energy materials. We invite contributions on a range of topics related to energy technology, including, but not limited to:

  • Thermal stability analysis of typical combustible components inside electrochemical power sources such as cathode, anode, electrolyte, and separator in batteries;
  • Flammable gases and oxygen leakage prevention methods for fuel cell systems;
  • Construction of battery thermal management system using composite materials such as phase-change materials with heat storage properties;
  • Simulation and calculation methods for heat and mass transfer of power systems.

In this Special Issue, original research articles, reviews, case reports, communications, perspectives, and viewpoints reporting innovative content on the topic are welcome. Our aim is to promote further research activities in this field and accelerate the industrialization of high-performance energy materials.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Que Huang
Dr. Jian Wang
Dr. Jingwen Weng
Dr. Ao Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fire is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • new energy materials
  • fire characteristics
  • rechargeable batteries
  • supercapacitors
  • fuel cell
  • advanced characterization methods
  • fire retardant
  • battery thermal management system
  • combustion model
  • theoretical calculation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 9661 KiB  
Article
Oil and Gas Structures: Forecasting the Fire Resistance of Steel Structures with Fire Protection under Hydrocarbon Fire Conditions
by Marina Gravit, Ivan Dmitriev, Nikita Shcheglov and Anton Radaev
Fire 2024, 7(6), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7060173 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 224
Abstract
The hydrocarbon temperature–time curve is widely used instead of the standard curve to describe the temperature in the environment of structural surfaces exposed to fire in oil and gas chemical facilities and tunnels. This paper presents calculations of the ratio of time to [...] Read more.
The hydrocarbon temperature–time curve is widely used instead of the standard curve to describe the temperature in the environment of structural surfaces exposed to fire in oil and gas chemical facilities and tunnels. This paper presents calculations of the ratio of time to reach critical temperatures at different nominal fire curves for steel structures such as bulkheads and columns with different types of fireproofing. The thermophysical properties of the fireproofing materials were obtained by solving the inverse heat conduction problem using computer simulation. It was found that the time interval for reaching critical temperatures in structures with different types of fireproofing in a hydrocarbon fire decreased, on average, by a factor of 1.2–1.7 compared to the results of standard fire tests. For example, for decks and bulkheads with mineral wool fireproofing, the K-factor of the ratio of the time for reaching the critical temperature of steel under the standard curve to the hydrocarbon curve was 1.30–1.62; for plaster, it was 1.56; for cement boards, it was 1.34; for non-combustible coatings, it was 1.38–2.0; and, for epoxy paints, it was 1.71. The recommended values of the K-factor for fire resistance up to 180 min (incl.) were 1.7 and, after 180 min, 1.2. The obtained dependencies would allow fireproofing manufacturers to predict the insulation thickness for expensive hydrocarbon fire experiments if the results of fire tests under standard (cellulosic) conditions are known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Energy Materials and Fire Safety)
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14 pages, 4479 KiB  
Article
Study on Flowability Enhancement and Performance Testing of Ultrafine Dry Powder Fire Extinguishing Agents Based on Application Requirements
by Guangbin Lu, Junchao Zhao, Yanting Zhou, Yangyang Fu, Song Lu and Heping Zhang
Fire 2024, 7(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7040146 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Flowability greatly affects the application of ultrafine dry powder fire extinguishing systems, while hydrophobicity and acute inhalation toxicity are concerns for fire extinguishing agents. In the present study, we examined the impact of hydrophobic fumed silica on the hydrophobicity and flow properties of [...] Read more.
Flowability greatly affects the application of ultrafine dry powder fire extinguishing systems, while hydrophobicity and acute inhalation toxicity are concerns for fire extinguishing agents. In the present study, we examined the impact of hydrophobic fumed silica on the hydrophobicity and flow properties of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the base. Our findings revealed that incorporating 6 wt.% of hydrophobic fumed silica resulted in optimal flowability, accompanied by a hydrophobicity angle of 126.48°. The excessive inclusion of hydrophobic fumed silica impeded powder flow within the ammonium dihydrogen phosphate particles. Furthermore, the investigations indicated that the incorporation of a small quantity of bentonite (0.5 wt.%) amongst the three functional additives—bentonite, magnesium stearate, and perlite—offered further enhancements in powder flowability. In fire extinguishing experiments’ total flooding conditions (1 m3), the designed UDPA exhibited a minimum required extinguishing concentration of merely 41.5 g/m3, which is better than the publicly reported value. Moreover, observations on the well-being of mice subjected to nearly three times the extinguishing concentration at 60 s, 10 min, and 3 days, respectively, demonstrated the absence of acute inhalation toxicity associated with the designed UDPA. Collectively, the developed ultrafine dry powder fire extinguishing agent displayed promising performance and possesses broad applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Energy Materials and Fire Safety)
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21 pages, 5759 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study on the Thermal Runaway Propagation of Cycling Aged Lithium-Ion Battery Modules
by Zhuxin Han, Luyao Zhao, Jiajun Zhao, Guo Xu, Hong Liu and Mingyi Chen
Fire 2024, 7(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7040119 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 819
Abstract
The primary concerns for individuals using lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are aging and thermal runaway (TR). This paper focuses on the thermal runaway propagation (TRP) of cycling aged LIB modules. The impacts of state of charge (SOC), state of health, and cyclic aging temperature [...] Read more.
The primary concerns for individuals using lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are aging and thermal runaway (TR). This paper focuses on the thermal runaway propagation (TRP) of cycling aged LIB modules. The impacts of state of charge (SOC), state of health, and cyclic aging temperature on TRP in LIB modules are investigated. The analysis includes parameters such as temperature, voltage, and mass of the modules during TRP. It was found that as SOC increases, the maximum increase in temperature and maximum temperature rate of the modules increased, as did the total mass loss and smoke emissions. The average heat transfer between adjacent cells was higher for the lower SOC. Cycle aging reduces the thermal stability of LIBs, leading to a lower maximum temperature and maximum temperature rate, as well as a larger mass loss compared with fresh battery modules. Regarding aging temperature, low-temperature aging reduces the total duration of TRP compared with room temperature, but it increases the maximum temperature rate and causes greater mass loss. Aging also increases the average heat transfer between adjacent cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Energy Materials and Fire Safety)
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15 pages, 5247 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Electrochemical and Safety Performance of Electrocatalytic Synthesis of NH3 with Walnut Shell-Derived Carbon by Introducing Sulfur
by Jin Wang, Zhichao Zheng, Bin Liu, Ziwei Wang and Shuang Wang
Fire 2023, 6(12), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6120456 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
An efficient catalyst is key to achieving the synthesis of electrochemical ammonia and improving safety. In this work, using biomass walnut shell as a carbon source and sodium thiosulfate as a sulfur source, sulfur-modified walnut shell-derived carbon material was synthesized via a simple [...] Read more.
An efficient catalyst is key to achieving the synthesis of electrochemical ammonia and improving safety. In this work, using biomass walnut shell as a carbon source and sodium thiosulfate as a sulfur source, sulfur-modified walnut shell-derived carbon material was synthesized via a simple low-temperature impregnation method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure as an effective electrochemical ammonia synthesis catalyst with high thermal stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption–desorption apparatus, thermogravimetry (TG), and other characterization methods were applied to analyze the micro-morphology and physicochemical structure of the electrocatalyst. The synthesized ammonia performance of the catalyst was measured using an ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer and electrochemical workstation. The catalyst design used the doping of sulfur atoms to create rich catalytic active sites, while the presence of elemental sulfur on the catalyst surface provided hydrophobicity, which was conducive to inhibiting competitive hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and enhancing the electrocatalytic ammonia synthesis performance of the catalyst. Under normal temperature and pressure conditions, when a voltage of −0.45 V was applied, the ammonia yield in 0.05 M H2SO4 electrolyte was 10.39 μgNH3 mgcat.−1 h−1. The results showed that the introduction of sulfur effectively improved the electrocatalytic and thermal safety performance of bio-derived carbon materials, and the test presented that the performance of the catalyst was stable and reusable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Energy Materials and Fire Safety)
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17 pages, 3405 KiB  
Article
Research on the Fire Behaviors of Polymeric Separator Materials PI, PPESK, and PVDF
by Que Huang, Xinxin Li, Peijie Han, Yang Li, Changcheng Liu, Qinpei Chen and Qiyue Li
Fire 2023, 6(10), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6100386 - 8 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Certain polymers, such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyimide (PI), and poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK), are commonly used separator materials in batteries. However, during the thermal runaway (TR) processing of batteries, significant heat is released by the combustion of the polymer separator. [...] Read more.
Certain polymers, such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyimide (PI), and poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK), are commonly used separator materials in batteries. However, during the thermal runaway (TR) processing of batteries, significant heat is released by the combustion of the polymer separator. Therefore, analysis of the fire behaviors of polymer separator materials will facilitate a more comprehensive quantitative evaluation of battery thermal risk. This paper investigated the combustion properties of three types of polymers, namely, PVDF, PI, and PPESK, as potential separator materials by cone calorimetry and thermogravimetry (TG). A series of characteristic parameters, including ignition time (TTI), heat release rate (HRR), smoke production rate (SPR), and total heat release (THR), were evaluated for three polymers and blends (PI/PVDF, PPESK/PVDF) under an external heat flux of 45 or 60 kW/m2, respectively. The combustion characteristics and fire hazards of the three polymers and corresponding mixtures were analyzed through the comparative analysis of experimental data and phenomena. Under 60 kW/m2, the HRR curves of all polymers presented two peaks, while PI/PVDF and PPESK/PVDF mixtures exhibited one obvious peak. Moreover, the peak HRR (pHRR) for the mixed polymers was higher, indicating a relatively higher fire risk. However, in the application scenario, the mixed state represents the main polymer form as the active separator materials in batteries. The results showed that the specific coupling behaviors were related primarily to the component type. This work will help evaluate the fire risk of polymeric separator materials based on the combustion characteristics to predict the safety of mixtures in batteries and develop new methods for fire suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Energy Materials and Fire Safety)
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