Special Issue "Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerosols".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jorma Joutsensaari
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
Interests: aerosol technology and physics, aerosol measurement techniques, atmospheric aerosols, secondary organic aerosols, biogenic aerosols, aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials, machine learning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nm in diameter or at least in one dimension for tubes and fibers, as commonly defined. They have many unique properties compared to large particles or bulk materials due to a high fraction of molecules on the particle surface and a large surface area-to-volume ration. For instance, they can be chemically very reactive (as catalysts), transformed easily (sintering), or act as seeds for vapor condensation (new particle formation in the atmosphere). Nanoparticles have an important role in climate change, since they can grow to the size of cloud condensation nuclei and thus have a cool climate and, in contrast, absorb sun radiation warming climate as black carbon particles on snow. Moreover, nanoparticles have adverse health effects, since they can easily penetrate deep into the lungs during inhalation and thus cause unwanted reactions in the human body.

Nanoparticles in the atmosphere originate from various sources. In the urban atmosphere, nanoparticles are typically formed from different combustion processes during energy production and transport by petrol and diesel vehicles, and other industrial processes. In the rural areas, the nucleation and growth of new particles (i.e., new particle formation) is a very important source of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles can also escape to the atmosphere during the manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles.

The characterization of nanoparticles is often very challenging, because the size or mass of the analyzed particles is below the detection limit of commonly used chemical analysis methods; furthermore, particle losses in sampling lines can be remarkable, or they can be transformed or destroyed during investigation by electron microcopy, for example. However, recently novel methods have been developed for nanoparticle analysis, e.g., mass spectrometers and particle size magnifiers.

The aim of this Special Issue is to gain insight into the current literature on nanoparticles in the atmosphere. Contributions from laboratory and field measurements and theoretical and modelling studies of nanoparticles from various atmospheric environments are welcome. Furthermore, recent studies on the development of nanoparticle characterization methods, as well as studies on nanoparticle formation mechanisms, are also anticipated. Finally, contributions focusing on the effects of nanoparticles on the Earth's climate and human health are very welcome.

Dr. Jorma Joutsensaari
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • ultrafine particles
  • new particle formation
  • formation mechanics of nanoparticles
  • nanoparticle characterization
  • secondary aerosol particles
  • urban aerosols
  • combustion generated nanoparticles
  • soot, black carbon
  • biogenic aerosols
  • health effects
  • climate change

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue Editorial: Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010061 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 599
Abstract
The aim of this Special Issue was to gain insight into the current knowledge on nanoparticles in the atmosphere, from laboratory and field measurements to theoretical and modelling studies of nanoparticles from various atmospheric environments [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Bulk Composition on the Heterogeneous Oxidation of Semi-Solid Atmospheric Aerosols
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120791 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 865
Abstract
The OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation of semi-solid saccharide particles with varying bulk compositions was investigated in an atmospheric pressure flow tube at 30% relative humidity. Reactive uptake coefficients were determined from the rate loss of the saccharide reactants measured by mass spectrometry at different [...] Read more.
The OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation of semi-solid saccharide particles with varying bulk compositions was investigated in an atmospheric pressure flow tube at 30% relative humidity. Reactive uptake coefficients were determined from the rate loss of the saccharide reactants measured by mass spectrometry at different monosaccharide (methyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, C7H14O6) and disaccharide (lactose, C12H22O11) molar ratios. The reactive uptake for the monosaccharide was found to decrease from 0.53 ± 0.10 to 0.05 ± 0.06 as the mono-to-disaccharide molar ratio changed from 8:1 to 1:1. A reaction–diffusion model was developed in order to determine the effect of chemical composition on the reactive uptake. The observed decays can be reproduced using a Vignes relationship to predict the composition dependence of the reactant diffusion coefficients. The experimental data and model results suggest that the addition of the disaccharide significantly increases the particle viscosity leading to slower mass transport phenomena from the bulk to the particle surface and to a decreased reactivity. These findings illustrate the impact of bulk composition on reactant bulk diffusivity which determines the rate-limiting step during the chemical transformation of semi-solid particles in the atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Fine Particle Emissions from Sauna Stoves: Effects of Combustion Appliance and Fuel, and Implications for the Finnish Emission Inventory
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120775 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Sauna Stoves (SS) are simple wood combustion appliances used mainly in Nordic countries. They generate emissions that have an impact on air quality and climate. In this study, a new measurement concept for comparing the operation, thermal efficiency, and real-life fine particle and [...] Read more.
Sauna Stoves (SS) are simple wood combustion appliances used mainly in Nordic countries. They generate emissions that have an impact on air quality and climate. In this study, a new measurement concept for comparing the operation, thermal efficiency, and real-life fine particle and gaseous emissions of SS was utilized. In addition, a novel, simple, and universal emission calculation procedure for the determination of nominal emission factors was developed for which the equations are presented for the first time. Fine particle and gaseous concentrations from 10 different types of SS were investigated. It was found that each SS model was an individual in relation to stove performance: stove heating time, air-to-fuel ratio, thermal efficiency, and emissions. Nine-fold differences in fine particle mass (PM1) concentrations, and about 90-fold differences in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were found between the SS, when dry (11% moisture content) birch wood was used. By using moist (18%) wood, particle number and carbon monoxide concentrations increased, but interestingly, PM1, PAH, and black carbon (BC) concentrations clearly decreased, when comparing to dry wood. E.g., PAH concentrations were 5.5–9.6 times higher with dry wood than with moist wood. Between wood species, 2–3-fold maximum differences in the emissions were found, whereas about 1.5-fold differences were observed between bark-containing and debarked wood logs. On average, the emissions measured in this study were considerably lower than in previous studies and emission inventories. This suggests that overall the designs of sauna stoves available on the market have improved during the 2010s. The findings of this study were used to update the calculation scheme behind the inventories, causing the estimates for total PM emissions from SS in Finland to decrease. However, wood-fired sauna stoves are still estimated to be the highest individual emission source of fine particles and black carbon in Finland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanoparticle Behaviour in an Urban Street Canyon at Different Heights and Implications on Indoor Respiratory Doses
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120772 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
The amount of outdoor particles that indoor environments receive depends on the particle infiltration factors (Fin), peculiar of each environment, and on the outdoor aerosol concentrations and size distributions. The respiratory doses received, while residing indoor, will change accordingly. This [...] Read more.
The amount of outdoor particles that indoor environments receive depends on the particle infiltration factors (Fin), peculiar of each environment, and on the outdoor aerosol concentrations and size distributions. The respiratory doses received, while residing indoor, will change accordingly. This study aims to ascertain to what extent such doses are affected by the vertical distance from the traffic sources. Particle number size distributions have been simultaneously measured at street level and at about 20 m height in a street canyon in downtown Rome. The same Fin have been adopted to estimate indoor aerosol concentrations, due to the infiltration of outdoor particles and then the relevant daily respiratory doses. Aerosol concentrations at ground floor were more than double than at 20 m height and richer in ultrafine particles. Thus, although aerosol infiltration efficiency was on average higher at 20 m height than at ground floor, particles more abundantly infiltrated at ground level. On a daily basis, this involved a 2.5-fold higher dose at ground level than at 20 m height. At both levels, such doses were greater than those estimated over the period of activity of some indoor aerosol sources; therefore, they represent an important contribution to the total daily dose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Dispersion of a Traffic Related Nanocluster Aerosol Near a Major Road
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060309 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Traffic is a major source of ultrafine aerosol particles in urban environments. Recent studies show that a significant fraction of traffic-related particles are only few nanometers in diameter. Here, we study the dispersion of this nanocluster aerosol (NCA) in the size range 1.3–4 [...] Read more.
Traffic is a major source of ultrafine aerosol particles in urban environments. Recent studies show that a significant fraction of traffic-related particles are only few nanometers in diameter. Here, we study the dispersion of this nanocluster aerosol (NCA) in the size range 1.3–4 nm. We measured particle concentrations near a major highway in the Helsinki region of Finland, varying the distance from the highway. Additionally, modelling studies were performed to gain further information on how different transformation processes affect NCA dispersion. The roadside measurements showed that NCA concentrations fell more rapidly than the total particle concentrations, especially during the morning. However, a significant amount of NCA particles remained as the aerosol population evolved. Modelling studies showed that, while dilution is the main process acting on the total particle concentration, deposition also had a significant impact. Condensation and possibly enhanced deposition of NCA were the main plausible processes explaining why dispersion is faster for NCA than for total particle concentration, while the effect of coagulation on all size ranges was small. Based on our results, we conclude that NCA may play a significant role in urban environments, since, rather than being scavenged by larger particles, NCA particles remain in the particle population and grow by condensation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere)
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