COVID-19 Academic Resources Center

MDPI Comment on the COVID-19 Virus

Since 1996, MDPI has been committed to supporting the research community by providing the latest research freely available and making relevant and useful research available as quickly as possible. The world is current experiencing a pandemic of COVID-19, and researchers are working extremely hard to understand it and find a cure.

The values MDPI holds strongly are particularly important at the moment, and we will continue to publish relevant, peer-reviewed research as quickly as possible in open access format. This means that it will immediately be available for researchers, health professionals, and the general public to read, distribute, and reuse. We believe that scientific advancements will be crucial to overcoming this pandemic, and will do everything we can to support researchers working looking for solutions.

This page contains a variety of information related to COVID-19 available from MDPI, including journal articles, special issues, and preprints, among others.

Recent Publications

Article
Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112254 (registering DOI) - 27 May 2022
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global health crisis and the factors behind its differential impact on COVID-19 among populations are still being known. Geographical differences in nutrient profile could be a relevant factor, especially considering that scientific evidence supports that 10 [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global health crisis and the factors behind its differential impact on COVID-19 among populations are still being known. Geographical differences in nutrient profile could be a relevant factor, especially considering that scientific evidence supports that 10 micronutrients are essential for proper immune system function. This study aims to evaluate these micronutrient intakes in the territories of Spain and to analyze their relationship with epidemiological indicators of COVID-19 from the first two waves of COVID-19, when neither specific vaccines nor drugs had yet come into play. Results showed that vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc intakes were particularly insufficient in Spain. The joint intake of these four micronutrients was lower in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality, and of particular importance, was the insufficient intake of vitamin D. A pattern of food consumption associated with lower COVID-19 impact was observed. In conclusion, the results show the relevance of the optimal consumption of foods rich in essential nutrients for the immune system. Therefore, this assessment could serve to launch specific dietary recommendations to strengthen the immune system in Spanish territories to better face potential new COVID-19 variants and/or further infectious diseases. Full article
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Article
Time Trend in SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity, Surveillance Detection- and Infection Fatality Ratio until Spring 2021 in the Tirschenreuth County—Results from a Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Germany
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061168 (registering DOI) - 27 May 2022
Abstract
Herein, we provide results from a prospective population-based longitudinal follow-up (FU) SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance study in Tirschenreuth, the county which was hit hardest in Germany in spring 2020 and early 2021. Of 4203 individuals aged 14 years or older enrolled at baseline (BL, June [...] Read more.
Herein, we provide results from a prospective population-based longitudinal follow-up (FU) SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance study in Tirschenreuth, the county which was hit hardest in Germany in spring 2020 and early 2021. Of 4203 individuals aged 14 years or older enrolled at baseline (BL, June 2020), 3546 participated at FU1 (November 2020) and 3391 at FU2 (April 2021). Key metrics comprising standardized seroprevalence, surveillance detection ratio (SDR), infection fatality ratio (IFR) and success of the vaccination campaign were derived using the Roche N- and S-Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 test together with a self-administered questionnaire. N-seropositivity at BL was 9.2% (1st wave). While we observed a low new seropositivity between BL and FU1 (0.9%), the combined 2nd and 3rd wave accounted for 6.1% new N-seropositives between FU1 and FU2 (ever seropositives at FU2: 15.4%). The SDR decreased from 5.4 (BL) to 1.1 (FU2) highlighting the success of massively increased testing in the population. The IFR based on a combination of serology and registration data resulted in 3.3% between November 2020 and April 2021 compared to 2.3% until June 2020. Although IFRs were consistently higher at FU2 compared to BL across age-groups, highest among individuals aged 70+ (18.3% versus 10.7%, respectively), observed differences were within statistical uncertainty bounds. While municipalities with senior care homes showed a higher IFR at BL (3.0% with senior care home vs. 0.7% w/o), this effect diminished at FU2 (3.4% vs. 2.9%). In April 2021 (FU2), vaccination rate in the elderly was high (>77.4%, age-group 80+). Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19)
Article
Attitudes and Behavior toward COVID-19 Vaccination in Japanese University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060863 (registering DOI) - 27 May 2022
Abstract
Background: It is said that safe and effective vaccination is an important tool to end the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recent studies have reported hesitation, especially in young adults. Promoting the vaccination of university students, who represent the young adults, will lead to infection [...] Read more.
Background: It is said that safe and effective vaccination is an important tool to end the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recent studies have reported hesitation, especially in young adults. Promoting the vaccination of university students, who represent the young adults, will lead to infection prevention measures. The purpose of this study was to clarify to compare the vaccination rates, attitudes toward vaccines, and post-vaccination behavior of students and faculty members in order to understand the actual situation of young population. Methods: We conducted large-scale vaccination of Hiroshima University from 21 June to 18 September 2021. This cross-sectional survey was conducted via e-mail from 27 September to 3 October 2021. Results: The number of second inoculations was 10,833 /14,154 students (76.5%), and 2240/2583 staff members (86.7%). Regarding the impressions after vaccination, the most common answer was “I was able to prevent worsening of the disease even if I was infected”. Many students answered that their range of activities had expanded after vaccination. However, many students (n = 1799, 87.8%) answered as having “no change after vaccination” regarding infection prevention. Conclusion: The high vaccination rate in this survey was thought to be due to the increased sense of security and confidence in the vaccine. The fact that young adults who perform a wide range of activities are careful about infection prevention may be one of the factors that prevents the explosive spread of infection in Japan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccines and Society)
Article
Factors Affecting Nurses’ Health Promotion Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic Based on the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills Model
Medicina 2022, 58(6), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58060720 (registering DOI) - 27 May 2022
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a major threat to nurses’ health. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting nurses’ health promotion behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Material and Methods: The participants were clinical nurses who [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a major threat to nurses’ health. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting nurses’ health promotion behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Material and Methods: The participants were clinical nurses who had direct contact with patients at a university hospital in G province, Korea. Data were collected from March 16 to April 16, 2021, and the final analysis included data from 162 nurses. The general and lifestyle characteristics of the participants were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the effect on health promotion behavior was analyzed using multiple regression with SPSS/WIN 21.0. Results: The results showed that the factors influencing nurses’ health promotion behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic were social support (β = 0.40, p < 0.001), self-efficacy (β = 0.27, p = 0.014), being married (β = 0.18, p = 0.018), having good health (β = 0.31, p < 0.001), and not skipping meals (β = 0.20, p = 0.001). The explanatory power of the variables was 51.4%. Therefore, health promotion programs to promote social support and self-efficacy are needed to improve nurses’ health promotion behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: These results indicate that the development of additional management strategies for health promotion among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic is necessary. It is necessary to prepare organizational policies and manage self-care to improve nurses’ irregular eating habits during the ongoing pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Article
Antibody Response in Healthcare Workers before and after the Third Dose of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine: A Pilot Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060862 (registering DOI) - 27 May 2022
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the development of various vaccines. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was the first approved due to its efficacy in eliciting a humoral immunity response after the second dose. However, a decrease in the antibody concentration was observed over time. [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the development of various vaccines. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was the first approved due to its efficacy in eliciting a humoral immunity response after the second dose. However, a decrease in the antibody concentration was observed over time. Therefore, the administration of a third dose was scheduled, primarily for frail people and workers of essential public activities. The aim of this study was to assess the level of antibodies against the spike (S) RBD of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers before and after the third dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, according to sex, age, and the time interval between vaccine doses and tests. All 37 (12 males, 25 females, 19 < 50 years old, 18 ≥ 50 years old) healthcare workers recruited showed a consistent antibody titer increase after the third dose. Data analysis showed that the antibody concentration before the third dose significantly decreased as the time interval up to the test increased, and a significantly higher level was shown in young than older people. Cluster analysis revealed that young females had a higher antibody level than older females before the third dose (p < 0.05). This study indicated the benefit of the third dose of BNT162b2 vaccine and its effect on leveling up the humoral immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Virus Epidemic Control)
Article
Reinforcement of the Standard Therapy with Two Infusions of Convalescent Plasma for Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(11), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11113039 (registering DOI) - 27 May 2022
Abstract
Background: The aim was to evaluate the reinforcement of the standard therapy with hyperimmune plasma (HP) in Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) patients. Methods: Open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial performed in three hospitals in the Balearic Islands. Non-severe COVID-19 hospitalized patients with clinical time evolution [...] Read more.
Background: The aim was to evaluate the reinforcement of the standard therapy with hyperimmune plasma (HP) in Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) patients. Methods: Open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial performed in three hospitals in the Balearic Islands. Non-severe COVID-19 hospitalized patients with clinical time evolution equal to/less than 7 days were included, and randomized in: plasma group (PG) (n = 37), receiving 600 mL divided into two doses from convalescent plasma donor, administered on days 1 and 2 after the enrollment; and control group (CG) (n = 17). Primary outcome was the time for clinical improvement within 21 days, defined as patient achievement of categories 8, 7, and 6 in the Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial scale (ACTT). The trial was terminated early due to the impossibility of recruitment due to the pandemic. Results: PG presented better scores on the ACTT scale at 7 days after HP infusion, whereas CG was needed 14 days to achieve similar results. The plasma infusion was safe. Conclusions: Despite the tendency observed in the plasma group to achieve slightly earlier better physical condition compared with the standard treatment alone. The administration of HP has been shown to be a safe therapy. No robust evidence was found to affirm a therapeutic effect of the early administration of two infusions of HP for non-severe COVID-19 infected patients. The interpretation is limited by the early termination of the trial, which resulted in a small sample size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Infectious Diseases)
Sequencing Techniques and Genomics Technologies to Help with Diagnostics and Virus Characterization – Focus on COVID 19
edited by Miten Jain, Hugh E. Olsen, and
submission deadline 15 Apr 2021 | 10 articles | Viewed by 25134
Keywords: Genomics technologies; Sequencing techniques; Metagenomics; Virus sequencing; Genetic diagnostics; qPCR; Nanopore sequencing; Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing; Next-generation sequencing (NGS); Third-generation sequencing; Virus characterization; Long-read sequencing; Comparative genomics; Functional genomics; Diagnostic tests; Infectious diseases; Pandemic; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Coronavirus; Genomic epidemiology; Population stratification; Genetic susceptibility; Host interactions
(This special issue belongs to the Section Technologies and Resources for Genetics)
Vitamins, Minerals, Nutrition and Maternal/Perinatal COVID-19—Is There a Link and an Opportunity for Intervention in Pregnant Mothers and Infants?
edited by and Bianca Masturzo
submission deadline 30 May 2022 | 1 articles | Viewed by 537
Keywords: pregnancy; nutrition; nutrients; bioactive; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; neonate; infant; minerals; vitamin
(This special issue belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
COVID-19 and Emergency Medicine
edited by Roland Bingisser
submission deadline 30 May 2022 | 10 articles | Viewed by 7889
Keywords: COVID-19/diagnosis; COVID-19/epidemiology; COVID-19/transmission; COVID-19 testing/economics; COVID-19 testing/methods; COVID-19/complications; hospital mortality; hospitalization/statistics and numerical data
(This special issue belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
The Evolution of Consumer Behavior in the Sustainable Business: Evidence from COVID-19
edited by
submission deadline 30 May 2022 | 12 articles | Viewed by 15000
Keywords: consumer behavior; cycle of satisfaction; attitude change; the evolution of shopping pattern; COVID-19
(This special issue belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
The Role of Technology in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment during and Post-COVID-19: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges submission deadline 31 May 2022 | 14 articles | Viewed by 24771
Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; pandemic; global; emerging technologies; ICT-enhanced learning; educational innovation; educational change; digital education; digital readiness; access and accessibility; inclusive education; teacher professional development; interactive e-books; games and simulations; dynamic visual representations; VR/AR/MR; mobile apps; ubiquitous computing; artificial intelligence and learning analytics; remote laboratories
(This special issue belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
Government Supply Chains, Manufacturing and Procurement Concerns in the Wake of COVID-19
edited by Daniel Joseph Finkenstadt
submission deadline 31 May 2022 | 1 articles | Viewed by 1851
Keywords: public procurement law; supply chain management; supply chain risk; supply chain resilience; domestic preference

State-of-the-Art Webinars on COVID-19


WEBINAR 1: How to Avoid a New Lockdown?

The first webinar in the series, held on 17 April 2020, saw both Prof. Dr. Antoine Flahault, Director of the Institute of Global Health, University of Geneva, Switzerland, and Prof. Dr. Evelyne Bischof, Associate Professor, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, China and Research physician, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland speak on this topic.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 2: Coronaviruses: History, Replication, Innate Immune Antagonism

The second webinar in the series, entitled “Coronaviruses: history, replication, innate immune antagonism”, saw Prof. Dr. Susan R. Weiss, Professor of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania speak on this topic.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 3: Could the COVID-19 Crisis be the Opportunity to Make Cities Carbon Neutral, Liveable and Healthy

The third webinar in this series was presented by Prof. Dr. Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, a world leading expert in environmental exposure assessment, epidemiology, and health risk/impact assessment with a strong focus and interest on healthy urban living. 

The recording can be found here

WEBINAR 4: COVID-19 - Global Supply Chains and the SDGs

For the fourth webinar of this series, Prof. Dr. Max Bergman, Dr. Dorothea Schostok and Prof. Dr. Patrick Paul Walsh gave a presentation on Global Supply Chains and the SDGs. 

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 5: The New Role of Family Physicians in Times of COVID-19

The fifth webinar of the COVID-19 Series saw Prof. Dr. Christos Lionis discuss the new role of family physicians that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 6: Survey on Symptoms/Signs, Protective Measures, Level of Awareness and Perception Regarding COVID-19 Outbreak among Dentists

In the sixth webinar of this series, Prof. Dr. Guglielmo Campus and Prof. Dr. Maria Grazia present and discuss the risk and the preventions that can and should be taken by dentists during this pandemic.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 7: Living with COVID-19: An Early Intervention Therapeutic Strategy to Control the Pandemic

The seventh webinar of the COVID-19 series, Dr. Hamid Merchant discussed the different therapeutic strategies that can be adopted in the early stages of the infection.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 8: Impact of COVID-19 on Routine Immunization, Reproduction and Pregnancy Outcome

For the eighth COVID-19 webinar, Prof. Dr. Jon Øyvind Odland discussed the effect that COVID-19 seems to have on pregnant women; whereas Prof. Dr. Giovanni Gabutti discussed the role of routine immunization as a way of fighting COVID-19.

The recording can be found here.

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