COVID-19 Academic Resources Center

MDPI Comment on the COVID-19 Virus

Since 1996, MDPI has been committed to supporting the research community by providing the latest research freely available and making relevant and useful research available as quickly as possible. The world is current experiencing a pandemic of COVID-19, and researchers are working extremely hard to understand it and find a cure.

The values MDPI holds strongly are particularly important at the moment, and we will continue to publish relevant, peer-reviewed research as quickly as possible in open access format. This means that it will immediately be available for researchers, health professionals, and the general public to read, distribute, and reuse. We believe that scientific advancements will be crucial to overcoming this pandemic, and will do everything we can to support researchers working looking for solutions.

This page contains a variety of information related to COVID-19 available from MDPI, including journal articles, special issues, and preprints, among others.

Recent Publications

Open AccessArticle
Period-Life of a Branching Process with Migration and Continuous Time
Mathematics 2021, 9(8), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9080868 (registering DOI) - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 90
Abstract
The homogeneous branching process with migration and continuous time is considered. We investigated the distribution of the period-life τ, i.e., the length of the time interval between the moment when the process is initiated by a positive number of particles and the [...] Read more.
The homogeneous branching process with migration and continuous time is considered. We investigated the distribution of the period-life τ, i.e., the length of the time interval between the moment when the process is initiated by a positive number of particles and the moment when there are no individuals in the population for the first time. The probability generating function of the random process, which describes the behavior of the process within the period-life, was obtained. The boundary theorem for the period-life of the subcritical or critical branching process with migration was found. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Anxiety, Difficulties, and Coping of Infertile Women
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040466 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 129
Abstract
The present study aims to highlight how women perceive and adapt to infertility difficulties. To better understand the difficulties that women diagnosed with infertility are experiencing, the study explores this concept in correlation with anxiety and coping. 240 women with fertility problems from [...] Read more.
The present study aims to highlight how women perceive and adapt to infertility difficulties. To better understand the difficulties that women diagnosed with infertility are experiencing, the study explores this concept in correlation with anxiety and coping. 240 women with fertility problems from various parts of Romania completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Form Y), Brief COPE and the scale “Difficulties With Infertility and Its Treatment.” Statistical analyzes showed that women who were at the beginning of treatment obtained higher scores on the anxiety [F(2,237) = 4.76, p = 0.009] and on the difficulties scale [F(2,237) = 3.53, p = 0.031], compared to participants who resorted to repeated fertilization procedures. It is important to emphasize that there is a significant positive correlation between the perception of infertility difficulties and coping, and also between difficulties and state anxiety. Regarding the relationship between state anxiety and coping, there were significant positive associations between maladaptive coping strategies and state anxiety, while adaptive strategies were negatively associated with state anxiety. In addition, regarding coping strategies, venting and self-blame occurred predominantly in women who know that the cause of infertility is female-related. These findings draws attention to the fact that infertile women live this experience at very high levels of anxiety, using quite a few adaptive coping mechanisms. These results highlight the need to investigate ways to reduce anxiety and optimizing adaptive coping strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comprehensive Clinical Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation: Version II)
Open AccessReview
When Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus and Severe COVID-19 Converge: The Perfect Storm for Mucormycosis
J. Fungi 2021, 7(4), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040298 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 180
Abstract
Mucormycosis (MCR) has been increasingly described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but the epidemiological factors, presentation, diagnostic certainty, and outcome of such patients are not well described. We review the published COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAMCR) cases (total 41) to identify risk factors, [...] Read more.
Mucormycosis (MCR) has been increasingly described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but the epidemiological factors, presentation, diagnostic certainty, and outcome of such patients are not well described. We review the published COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAMCR) cases (total 41) to identify risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes. CAMCR was typically seen in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (94%) especially the ones with poorly controlled DM (67%) and severe or critical COVID-19 (95%). Its presentation was typical of MCR seen in diabetic patients (mostly rhino-orbital and rhino-orbital-cerebral presentation). In sharp contrast to reported COVID-associated aspergillosis (CAPA) cases, nearly all CAMCR infections were proven (93%). Treating physicians should have a high suspicion for CAMCR in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and severe COVID-19 presenting with rhino-orbital or rhino-cerebral syndromes. CAMR is the convergence of two storms, one of DM and the other of COVID-19. Full article
Open AccessReview
Genome Editing in Bacteria: CRISPR-Cas and Beyond
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040844 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Genome editing in bacteria encompasses a wide array of laborious and multi-step methods such as suicide plasmids. The discovery and applications of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas based technologies have revolutionized genome editing in eukaryotic organisms due to its simplicity and [...] Read more.
Genome editing in bacteria encompasses a wide array of laborious and multi-step methods such as suicide plasmids. The discovery and applications of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas based technologies have revolutionized genome editing in eukaryotic organisms due to its simplicity and programmability. Nevertheless, this system has not been as widely favored for bacterial genome editing. In this review, we summarize the main approaches and difficulties associated with CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing in bacteria and present some alternatives to circumvent these issues, including CRISPR nickases, Cas12a, base editors, CRISPR-associated transposases, prime-editing, endogenous CRISPR systems, and the use of pre-made ribonucleoprotein complexes of Cas proteins and guide RNAs. Finally, we also address fluorescent-protein-based methods to evaluate the efficacy of CRISPR-based systems for genome editing in bacteria. CRISPR-Cas still holds promise as a generalized genome-editing tool in bacteria and is developing further optimization for an expanded application in these organisms. This review provides a rarely offered comprehensive view of genome editing. It also aims to familiarize the microbiology community with an ever-growing genome-editing toolbox for bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Microbiology)
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Open AccessReview
Pharmacological Modulators of Autophagy as a Potential Strategy for the Treatment of COVID-19
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084067 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 205
Abstract
The family of coronaviruses (CoVs) uses the autophagy machinery of host cells to promote their growth and replication; thus, this process stands out as a potential target to combat COVID-19. Considering the different roles of autophagy during viral infection, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, in [...] Read more.
The family of coronaviruses (CoVs) uses the autophagy machinery of host cells to promote their growth and replication; thus, this process stands out as a potential target to combat COVID-19. Considering the different roles of autophagy during viral infection, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, in this review, we discuss several clinically used drugs that have effects at different stages of autophagy. Among them, we mention (1) lysosomotropic agents, which can prevent CoVs infection by alkalinizing the acid pH in the endolysosomal system, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, artemisinins, two-pore channel modulators and imatinib; (2) protease inhibitors that can inhibit the proteolytic cleavage of the spike CoVs protein, which is necessary for viral entry into host cells, such as camostat mesylate, lopinavir, umifenovir and teicoplanin and (3) modulators of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways, such as rapamycin, heparin, glucocorticoids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (IECAs) and cannabidiol. Thus, this review aims to highlight and discuss autophagy-related drugs for COVID-19, from in vitro to in vivo studies. We identified specific compounds that may modulate autophagy and exhibit antiviral properties. We hope that research initiatives and efforts will identify novel or “off-label” drugs that can be used to effectively treat patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, reducing the risk of mortality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multilevel Factors Associated with Frailty among the Rural Elderly in Korea Based on the Ecological Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084146 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 210
Abstract
Frailty is prevalent in the rural elderly and, as a result, they are vulnerable to serious health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the multilevel factors affecting frailty among the rural elderly using the ecological model. A total of 386 [...] Read more.
Frailty is prevalent in the rural elderly and, as a result, they are vulnerable to serious health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the multilevel factors affecting frailty among the rural elderly using the ecological model. A total of 386 participants aged 65 years or older from 60 rural areas were included in the study. Frailty was measured using the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty index. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors affecting frailty among the rural elderly. The results show that the levels of prevalence for robust, pre-frailty, and frailty groups were 81 (21%), 216 (56%), and 89 (23%), respectively. As for intrapersonal factors, old age, lower than middle school education, low and moderate levels of physical activity, depressive symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction significantly increased the risk of frailty; however, no interpersonal and community factors were significant in affecting frailty. The findings indicate that individualized strategies to encourage physical activity, prevent depressive symptoms, and preserve cognitive function are needed to prevent frailty in the rural elderly. Full article
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Sequencing Techniques and Genomics Technologies to Help with Diagnostics and Virus Characterization – Focus on COVID 19
edited by Miten Jain, Hugh E. Olsen, and
submission deadline 15 Apr 2021 | 8 articles
(This special issue belongs to the Section Technologies and Resources for Genetics)
Bioengineering Techniques and Applications Against COVID-19
edited by Dimitrios Glotsos, and Sara Reis
submission deadline 30 Apr 2021
SARS-CoV-2 Infections in the Elderly
edited by and Jonathan Hewitt
submission deadline 30 Apr 2021 | 8 articles

State-of-the-Art Webinars on COVID-19


WEBINAR 1: How to Avoid a New Lockdown?

The first webinar in the series, held on 17 April 2020, saw both Prof. Dr. Antoine Flahault, Director of the Institute of Global Health, University of Geneva, Switzerland, and Prof. Dr. Evelyne Bischof, Associate Professor, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, China and Research physician, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland speak on this topic.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 2: Coronaviruses: History, Replication, Innate Immune Antagonism

The second webinar in the series, entitled “Coronaviruses: history, replication, innate immune antagonism”, saw Prof. Dr. Susan R. Weiss, Professor of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania speak on this topic.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 3: Could the COVID-19 Crisis be the Opportunity to Make Cities Carbon Neutral, Liveable and Healthy

The third webinar in this series was presented by Prof. Dr. Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, a world leading expert in environmental exposure assessment, epidemiology, and health risk/impact assessment with a strong focus and interest on healthy urban living. 

The recording can be found here

WEBINAR 4: COVID-19 - Global Supply Chains and the SDGs

For the fourth webinar of this series, Prof. Dr. Max Bergman, Dr. Dorothea Schostok and Prof. Dr. Patrick Paul Walsh gave a presentation on Global Supply Chains and the SDGs. 

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 5: The New Role of Family Physicians in Times of COVID-19

The fifth webinar of the COVID-19 Series saw Prof. Dr. Christos Lionis discuss the new role of family physicians that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 6: Survey on Symptoms/Signs, Protective Measures, Level of Awareness and Perception Regarding COVID-19 Outbreak among Dentists

In the sixth webinar of this series, Prof. Dr. Guglielmo Campus and Prof. Dr. Maria Grazia present and discuss the risk and the preventions that can and should be taken by dentists during this pandemic.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 7: Living with COVID-19: An Early Intervention Therapeutic Strategy to Control the Pandemic

The seventh webinar of the COVID-19 series, Dr. Hamid Merchant discussed the different therapeutic strategies that can be adopted in the early stages of the infection.

The recording can be found here.

WEBINAR 8: Impact of COVID-19 on Routine Immunization, Reproduction and Pregnancy Outcome

For the eighth COVID-19 webinar, Prof. Dr. Jon Øyvind Odland will discuss the effect that COVID-19 seems to have on pregnant women; whereas Prof. Dr. Giovanni Gabutti will discuss the role of routine immunization as a way of fighting COVID-19.

Date and Time: 30 June 2020 at 3.00pm (CEST) | 9.00am (EDT) | 9.00pm (CST Asia)

Register now.

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