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Volume 1, September
 
 

Venereology, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2022) – 10 articles

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Review
Neuroinformatics Insights towards Multiple Neurosyphilis Complications
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 135-160; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010010 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease that infects more than 2.1 million pregnant women every year. Due to its maximum death rates and augmented risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the disease is still a matter of debate [...] Read more.
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease that infects more than 2.1 million pregnant women every year. Due to its maximum death rates and augmented risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the disease is still a matter of debate in many low- and high-income countries. The infection has three stages that lead to several complications if left untreated and can lead to many tertiary complications in the brain, eyes, ears, heart, and pregnancy. Neurosyphilis is also known as the clinical result of infection of the central nervous system by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. It can evolve at any time and from any stage of syphilis exposure. This review briefly explains the severe and multiple neurosyphilitic complications and recently identified cases related to neurosyphilis. We also explained computational neuroscience, neuroinformatics, and in silico models and techniques based on artificial intelligence and other computational and mathematical methods. These techniques have already been applied to several neurological and psychological brain complications and can be applied to neurosyphilis to better understand the persistence of the disease related to the brain that causes neurosyphilis. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Seromarkers in Female Sex Workers in Enugu State, Nigeria
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 124-134; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010009 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a sexually transmitted virus with a wide range of terminal complications. As such, female sex workers (FSWs) are an important group in the epidemiology of the virus. This study was aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of HBV markers [...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a sexually transmitted virus with a wide range of terminal complications. As such, female sex workers (FSWs) are an important group in the epidemiology of the virus. This study was aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of HBV markers and the exposure rate of the virus among FSWs in Enugu State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out among brothel-based FSWs, involving 200 participants recruited using a consecutive sampling method. Blood specimens were collected and tested for HBV markers using chromatographic immunoassay rapid test kits. Additional information was obtained through the administration of a well-structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and analyzed using the Descriptive Statistics and Chi-Square test in SPSS. Out of the 200 sampled individuals, 82(41%) tested positive for at least one seromarker, with 44(22%) showing evidence of natural infection and 38(19%) indicating a vaccine response. Hepatitis B core antibody (total anti-HBc) was present in 42(21%) of the participants, while 8(4%) had hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which is indicative of current infection. This study revealed intermediate prevalence, a high exposure rate and a low vaccination rate among the study population. There is a need for more effective intervention strategies among FSWs in the study area. Full article
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Review
Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 114-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010008 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), predominantly caused by Candida albicans, is estimated to affect about 138 million women each year worldwide and 492 million over their lifetimes. Recurrent VVC (RVVC), defined as four or more episodes of VVC in a year, is increasingly recognized and [...] Read more.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), predominantly caused by Candida albicans, is estimated to affect about 138 million women each year worldwide and 492 million over their lifetimes. Recurrent VVC (RVVC), defined as four or more episodes of VVC in a year, is increasingly recognized and constitutes up to 10% of the cases of VVC. RVVC is an important clinical and global public health challenge project that will affect about 160 million per year by 2030. RVVC significantly affects the quality of life of the affected women. Host factors, such as underlying immunosuppressive conditions and genetic predisposition, are suggested key risk factors for recurrence. However, an increasingly higher prevalence of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species, such as C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. guilliermondii, and others, which are either intrinsically resistant to azoles or have higher minimum inhibitory concentrations to most antifungal agents, such as fluconazole, which are commonly used for the treatment of VVC/RVVC, has been reported. Therefore, treatment remains a challenge. Long-term maintenance antifungal is required to avoid recurrence of symptoms. Alternative treatment includes boric acid and topical amphotericin B; however, they are associated with serious side effects, limiting their use. The oral echinocandin ibrexafungerp is well-tolerated and efficacious against Candida vulvovaginitis. RVVC presents a unique area for continued research and development. Full article
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Review
A Global Scoping Review of the Factors Associated with HIV and Syphilis Co-Infection: Findings from 40 Countries
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 98-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010007 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–syphilis co-infection poses a threat to certain populations, and patients may have considerably poorer health outcomes due to these infections. Our objective was therefore to provide a scoping review of the literature regarding the factors associated with HIV–syphilis coinfection. We [...] Read more.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–syphilis co-infection poses a threat to certain populations, and patients may have considerably poorer health outcomes due to these infections. Our objective was therefore to provide a scoping review of the literature regarding the factors associated with HIV–syphilis coinfection. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, and produced a total of 1412 articles. After completing the screening process as per the Preferred Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines, a total of 109 articles were eligible for inclusion. A total of 68,634 co-infected patients were included in our review. Findings from studies across 40 countries demonstrated that males—particularly men who have sex with men—compose the overwhelming majority of co-infected cases. Additional risk factors include a low CD4 cell count, current or past sexually transmitted infections, and a high number of sexual partners. Our findings have important implications in guiding public health programs across the globe that aim to lower the rates of HIV–syphilis co-infection. More research is also needed on the role of educational attainment, comorbidities, and consistent condom usage regarding the risk for co-infection. Full article
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Article
Knowledge, Prevalence and Factors Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Female Students of a Federal University in Southern Nigeria
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 81-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010006 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Background: Globally, over 40 million people are estimated to be living with sexually transmitted infection/diseases (STI/Ds), including HIV/AIDS. It is said that sub-Saharan Africa accounts for over a half of that figure, making it the continent most affected with HIV/AIDS and other STI/Ds. [...] Read more.
Background: Globally, over 40 million people are estimated to be living with sexually transmitted infection/diseases (STI/Ds), including HIV/AIDS. It is said that sub-Saharan Africa accounts for over a half of that figure, making it the continent most affected with HIV/AIDS and other STI/Ds. This study was designed and conducted to assess the knowledge and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, and factors that are associated with it, among female students of a university in southern Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among female students in five faculties in the University of Benin, Benin City. The instrument used for the collection of data was a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS, version 22.0. A level of significance was set at p < 0.05 and descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. An odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval for prevalence and factors associated with STI/Ds was computed using binary and multinomial logistic regression models. Results: A total of 423 female students participated in the study. Over half (224, 53.0%) of the participants have had sexual intercourse. The results show that majority of the respondents (95.3%) were aware of STIs and 83.1% had good knowledge of STIs. The prevalence of STI/Ds among the participants was 27.7%, with gonorrhea being the most frequent STI/D that the respondents reported testing positive for. Conclusion: The present study was able to ascertain a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among female students. To this end, it is imperative that families and agencies (both government and private agencies) should synergize to remove the embargo seemingly placed on women by our cultures and faith-based institutions regarding sexuality. This may help to improve access to sexual and reproductive health education and commodities for women, thereby play a vital role in reducing the transmission of STI/Ds. Full article
Review
Novel Treatment Approaches to Combat Trichomoniasis, a Neglected and Sexually Transmitted Infection Caused by Trichomonas vaginalis: Translational Perspectives
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 47-80; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010005 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3585
Abstract
The multistep translational science behind new drugs comprehends the entire process through laboratory, clinical, and community observations turned into health interventions. The development of new drug options from discovering targets and leading compounds in basic research for implementing therapeutic guidelines contributes to the [...] Read more.
The multistep translational science behind new drugs comprehends the entire process through laboratory, clinical, and community observations turned into health interventions. The development of new drug options from discovering targets and leading compounds in basic research for implementing therapeutic guidelines contributes to the emergence of health policies essential for infection control. This review updates the translational research in the scenario of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection (STI), trichomoniasis. Paradoxically to its high occurrence, it is considered neglected since notification is not mandatory. It turns into a stable disease with health complications, and receives little emphasis from public health programs to control STI. Although related to curable STIs, the current drugs, metronidazole and tinidazole, present therapeutic failures. The need for new options to treat trichomoniasis is established by basic research studies and patents revealing novel synthetic compounds and natural products presenting anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activities, mainly based on in vitro findings. Clinical trials are still focused on new routes of administration for conventional drugs. In addition, nanotechnology approaches are in their infancy, shedding light on potential possibilities for creating more effective, targeted, and safe delivery systems. Overall, the novel proposed approaches need, in addition to pharmaceutical development and efficacy assessments, to ensure that the quality requirements for their use as medicines are met. It is essential to overcome these issues to cross the “Death Valley” of drug discovery and to advance in the translational science criteria in the trichomoniasis drug development field. Full article
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Review
2021 CDC Update: Treatment and Complications of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 23-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010004 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 3394
Abstract
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated their Sexually-Transmitted Infection (STI) Treatment Guidelines with a revision to the approach to gonococcal infections in December 2020 and other STIs in July 2021. This article reviews the new recommendations and highlights important [...] Read more.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated their Sexually-Transmitted Infection (STI) Treatment Guidelines with a revision to the approach to gonococcal infections in December 2020 and other STIs in July 2021. This article reviews the new recommendations and highlights important updates from the 2015 iteration that are crucial for primary care and community health practice. Full article
Article
Sexual Health and HIV/STI Risk in Gay Refugee Men in Nairobi, Kenya: A Qualitative Study
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 9-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010003 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
Refugees are often without financial support and some resort to survival sex. Some of these men are gay or bisexual who fled their countries because of actual or fear of death and other persecution, exacerbated by the criminalization of consensual same-sex practices by [...] Read more.
Refugees are often without financial support and some resort to survival sex. Some of these men are gay or bisexual who fled their countries because of actual or fear of death and other persecution, exacerbated by the criminalization of consensual same-sex practices by life imprisonment or death in extreme cases. We conducted qualitative interviews with 12 gay and bisexual men within a larger sample in Nairobi, Kenya, who engaged in survival sex. Thematic analysis indicated eight main themes: Physical dangers, sexual assault, lack of rights and recourse to justice; Emotional difficulties of sex work; Seeing treatable STIs as “normal”, but others like Hepatitis B and C as abnormal, and HIV as the most feared; Recognition of penile symptoms but concerns about sexual health including anal symptoms, such as fistulas and bleeding; good knowledge about HIV but confusions over PEP and PrEP, self-testing, health access to NGO clinics and some hospital clinics but concerns about stigma and discrimination in public clinics generally; and as a result of concerns about public healthcare settings, use of pharmacies for treatment. The data indicate that male refugees from gay repression, as found for refugees from other repressions, face many of the same issues with local variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members of Venereology)
Editorial
The Persistence and Increase in Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) to Pandemic Levels
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 2-8; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010002 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been known about since ancient times. Today, however, STDs are on the rise in young people around the world. Interventions and sex education are being utilized in attempt to prevent STD spread in individuals who are the greatest [...] Read more.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been known about since ancient times. Today, however, STDs are on the rise in young people around the world. Interventions and sex education are being utilized in attempt to prevent STD spread in individuals who are the greatest risk of infection. Young people should be provided with easy and accessible health services. There should be anonymity as well as investigations into the reasoning behind unsafe behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members of Venereology)
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Editorial
Publisher’s Note: Venereology—A New Open Access Journal for the Study and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Venereology 2022, 1(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/venereology1010001 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1532
Abstract
It is our pleasure to welcome you to Venereology (ISSN: 2674-0710) [...] Full article
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