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Oxygen, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 6 articles

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17 pages, 3200 KiB  
Review
Hypoxia in Uterine Fibroids: Role in Pathobiology and Therapeutic Opportunities
by Sydney L. Olson, Razeen J. Akbar, Adrianna Gorniak, Laura I. Fuhr and Mostafa A. Borahay
Oxygen 2024, 4(2), 236-252; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen4020013 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in females, affecting up to 70% of women worldwide, yet targeted therapeutic options are limited. Oxidative stress has recently surfaced as a key driver of fibroid pathogenesis and provides insights into hypoxia-induced cell transformation, extracellular matrix [...] Read more.
Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in females, affecting up to 70% of women worldwide, yet targeted therapeutic options are limited. Oxidative stress has recently surfaced as a key driver of fibroid pathogenesis and provides insights into hypoxia-induced cell transformation, extracellular matrix pathophysiology, hypoxic cell signaling cascades, and uterine biology. Hypoxia drives fibroid tumorigenesis through (1) promoting myometrial stem cell proliferation, (2) causing DNA damage propelling the transformation of stem cells to tumor-initiating cells, and (3) driving excess extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Common fibroid-associated DNA mutations include MED12 mutations, HMGA2 overexpression, and fumarate hydratase loss of function. Evidence suggests an interaction between hypoxia signaling and these mutations. Fibroid development and growth are promoted by hypoxia-triggered cell signaling via various pathways including HIF-1, TGFβ, and Wnt/β-catenin. Fibroid-associated hypoxia persists due to antioxidant imbalance, ECM accumulation, and growth beyond adequate vascular supply. Current clinically available fibroid treatments do not take advantage of hypoxia-targeting therapies. A growing number of pre-clinical and clinical studies identify ROS inhibitors, anti-HIF-1 agents, Wnt/β-catenin inhibition, and TGFβ cascade inhibitors as agents that may reduce fibroid development and growth through targeting hypoxia. Full article
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55 pages, 16540 KiB  
Review
Highly Oxygenated Cyclobutane Ring in Biomolecules: Insights into Structure and Activity
by Valery M. Dembitsky
Oxygen 2024, 4(2), 181-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen4020012 - 22 May 2024
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Abstract
This review explores the unique structural and functional characteristics of natural products featuring highly oxygenated cyclobutane rings, with a specific focus on oxetane and 1,2-dioxetane motifs. It presents the structures and biological activities of compounds containing these rings, highlighting their contribution to molecular [...] Read more.
This review explores the unique structural and functional characteristics of natural products featuring highly oxygenated cyclobutane rings, with a specific focus on oxetane and 1,2-dioxetane motifs. It presents the structures and biological activities of compounds containing these rings, highlighting their contribution to molecular stability and pharmacological potency. Through detailed case studies and recent research findings, it has been demonstrated that these oxygen-rich rings enhance the molecular diversity and biological efficacy of natural products, potentially offering new avenues for drug development. Notably, these compounds are predominantly synthesized by microorganisms and can also be found in extracts from fungi, plants, and certain marine invertebrates. Compounds with oxetane and 1,2-dioxetane rings are primarily noted for their strong antineoplastic properties, among other biological activities. In contrast, most 1,2-dioxetanes exhibit potent antiprotozoal effects. It is important to note that 1,2-dioxetanes often serve as intermediate products in oxidation reactions, characterized by their instability and propensity to decompose into new compounds. Full article
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18 pages, 2035 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Antioxidant Potential of Halophyte Plants and Seaweeds for Health Applications
by Inês João Ferreira, Ana Rita C. Duarte, Mário Diniz and Ricardo Salgado
Oxygen 2024, 4(2), 163-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen4020011 - 10 May 2024
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Abstract
Halophyte plants and seaweed are described in the literature as rich sources of antioxidant compounds that can be used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, we studied the antioxidant composition of five species of halophytic plants (Suaeda vera Forssk, [...] Read more.
Halophyte plants and seaweed are described in the literature as rich sources of antioxidant compounds that can be used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, we studied the antioxidant composition of five species of halophytic plants (Suaeda vera Forssk, Portulaca oleracea L., Inula crithmoides L., Salicornia ramosissima (Hook.f.) J. Woods and Sarcocornia perennis (Mill.) A.J.Scott) and three seaweeds (Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L.Irvine and Farnham, Fucus spiralis L. and Ulva rigida C. Agardh) collected in Sado Estuary, Portugal. In the case of the plants, different parts of the plant were also assessed. Various extraction procedures were also performed to understand which methods were most suitable for extracting the various antioxidant compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the antioxidant compounds in halophytes and seaweed using various methods (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP), as well as the phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents in the different extracts obtained. The amount of soluble protein in each extract was also determined. The results show that methanolic extracts generally have a higher antioxidant capacity, while the highest soluble protein content was observed in aqueous extracts. The seaweed Fucus Spiralis showed the highest antioxidant content, while in halophytic plants the highest antioxidant content was detected in the leaves. In general, this work confirms the potential of halophytes and seaweed as sources of antioxidant compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
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14 pages, 1324 KiB  
Review
Hyperbaric Oxygen in Otorhinolaryngology: Current Concepts in Management and Therapy
by Andrea Collettini, Federica Zoccali, Christian Barbato and Antonio Minni
Oxygen 2024, 4(2), 150-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen4020010 - 26 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Background: In otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery, oxygen is a therapeutic tool used for various pathologies. Oxidative stress is the imbalance between the production of free radicals (ROS) and the antioxidant capacity of the body, which can represent the pathogenesis of several [...] Read more.
Background: In otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery, oxygen is a therapeutic tool used for various pathologies. Oxidative stress is the imbalance between the production of free radicals (ROS) and the antioxidant capacity of the body, which can represent the pathogenesis of several pathologies or contribute to their worsening. This narrative review aims to analyze the benefits, indications, and side effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in different head and neck disorders. Methods: The search was carried out on multiple electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar, and prospective, randomized, and reviewed studies were analyzed from January 1982 to February 2024. Results and Conclusions: The most common tools used to manage oxidative stress in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) field are continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and HBOT. A common ENT pathology, while the latter can be used for osteoradionecrosis treatment in head and neck cancer patients, infections, malignant external otitis, head and neck reconstruction, facial cosmetic surgery, and among patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. From our analysis, it emerged that HBOT is a currently used effective therapy in various ENT pathologies’ treatment, alone or in association with other treatments; it can guarantee functional recovery and healing depending on the type of pathology for which it is used and on its severity. Full article
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11 pages, 1184 KiB  
Review
Propranolol Hydrochloride Psychiatric Effectiveness and Oxidative Stress: An Update
by Raphaël Serreau, Ammar Amirouche, Amine Benyamina and Sabine Berteina-Raboin
Oxygen 2024, 4(2), 139-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen4020009 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 572
Abstract
In this review, in addition to the potential cardiovascular applications of β-blockers and, more specifically, propranolol, we wanted to list the more recent applications in psychiatry as well as current knowledge on the impact of oxidative stress on propranolol hydrochloride and the oxidative [...] Read more.
In this review, in addition to the potential cardiovascular applications of β-blockers and, more specifically, propranolol, we wanted to list the more recent applications in psychiatry as well as current knowledge on the impact of oxidative stress on propranolol hydrochloride and the oxidative stress that could be limited by the latter. In fact, a number of studies show that this molecule is modified by oxidative stress but is also able to limit it. Mention is also made to studies on the increasingly important problem of eliminating drug waste and its impact on the environment, particularly the marine environment. Given the increase in the consumption of medicines, more rigorous waste management is needed to avoid impacting biodiversity. Full article
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17 pages, 644 KiB  
Review
Energy Metabolism as a Therapeutic Target in Cancer: The Role of Coenzyme Q10
by David Mantle, Hannah Rowbottom, Jacob Jones, Indiia Margarita Potts, Nadia Turton, Mollie Dewsbury, Guillermo Lopez-Lluch and Iain P. Hargreaves
Oxygen 2024, 4(2), 122-138; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen4020008 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1682
Abstract
The generation of energy within cells is a fundamental process enabling cell survival, and as such it represents a potential target in cancer therapy. In this article, we therefore review the relative contributions of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation/mitochondrial function to cancer cell energy [...] Read more.
The generation of energy within cells is a fundamental process enabling cell survival, and as such it represents a potential target in cancer therapy. In this article, we therefore review the relative contributions of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation/mitochondrial function to cancer cell energy generation, and we highlight their respective potential value as chemotherapeutic targets. This article is particularly focussed on the potential role of coenzyme Q10 in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Full article
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