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Coasts, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 6 articles

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14 pages, 3821 KiB  
Article
Drone Surveys Are More Efficient and Cost Effective Than Ground- and Boat-Based Surveys for the Inspection of Fishing Fleet at Harbors
by José Amorim Reis-Filho and Tommaso Giarrizzo
Coasts 2022, 2(4), 355-368; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts2040018 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Generating accurate estimates of the number of vessels in fishing ports using traditional methods (i.e., ground- and boat-based) can be challenging as observations are distorted by an horizontal perspective. Automated inspection using drones is an emerging research alternative for this type of investigation. [...] Read more.
Generating accurate estimates of the number of vessels in fishing ports using traditional methods (i.e., ground- and boat-based) can be challenging as observations are distorted by an horizontal perspective. Automated inspection using drones is an emerging research alternative for this type of investigation. However, the drone-based and ground- and boat-based survey methods have not been quantitatively compared for small-scale and commercial fishing fleets in their ports. The objective of this study was to determine the number of fishing vessels and detect onboard fishing gear using three independent sources of data along 41 ports across the Brazilian coastline. Proved by statistical significance, the drone-derived vessel counts revealed 17.9% and 26.6% more fishing vessels than ground- and boat-based surveys, respectively. These differences were further highlighted during the assessment of ports without a ground walkway, causing difficulty, especially for ground-based surveys. Considerable numbers and types of onboard fishing gear were detected using the drone survey, that could not be detected using the ground- and boat-based methods. Although the ground-based survey was associated with a lower cost in comparison with other methods, the drone-based survey required the least time to record fishing fleet features in study ports. Our findings demonstrate that drone surveys can improve the detection and precision of counts for fishing vessels and fishing gear in ports. Further, the magnitude of the discrepancies among the three methods highlights the need for employing drone surveys as a considerable time-reducing approach, and a cost-effective technique for fishery studies. Full article
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14 pages, 1284 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Coastal Business Strategies for Cultured Pearl Sectors: Agenda Development for Coast-Area Actors’ Collaboration
by Hiroko Oe and Yasuyuki Yamaoka
Coasts 2022, 2(4), 341-354; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts2040017 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
This study was conducted to propose and identify suggestions for pathways to maintain the sustainability of the pearl industry, a cultural value asset rooted in the region, and to revitalize coastal communities through the pearl industry. Using a qualitative approach, this study sought [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to propose and identify suggestions for pathways to maintain the sustainability of the pearl industry, a cultural value asset rooted in the region, and to revitalize coastal communities through the pearl industry. Using a qualitative approach, this study sought the opinions of relevant stakeholders based on key themes from the literature review and compiled an agenda for further research and discussion. Specifically, focus group discussions were held with pearl industry stakeholders, local residents, the pearl industry and organizations, tourists, and the public sector, and the views among the four stakeholder groups were analyzed. As a result, the following factors were identified as likely to contribute to the sustainability of the cultured pearl industry: (1) co-creation of value through collaboration between the local stakeholders and local communities (satoumi), (2) efforts to pass on and innovate traditional cultured pearl technology seeking global markets, and (3) enhancement of industrial support measures in coastal areas through collaboration between residents, industry, and government to create an ecology-focused inbound tourism strategy. Stakeholders are strongly aware of the need to promote to the world the value of unique cultured pearls and gemstones that rely on traditional Japanese technology and to attract tourists, along with the development of the next generation of pearl industry leaders, but further systematic intervention is required to achieve this goal. The results of this study are expected to serve as a basis for the next steps in presenting further suggestions through integrated analysis with quantitative economic data. They may also provide guidance for the development of pathways to regional development through the revitalization of local industries and tourism innovation in other coastal regions of the world. Full article
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18 pages, 7578 KiB  
Review
Τhe “GPS/GNSS on Boat” Technique for the Determination of the Sea Surface Topography and Geoid: A Critical Review
by Sotiris Lycourghiotis and Foteini Kariotou
Coasts 2022, 2(4), 323-340; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts2040016 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2427
Abstract
The opening up of the global positioning system (GPS) for non-military uses provided a new impetus for the study of the sea surface topography (SST) and geoid, especially in coastal areas which are important from the viewpoint of the climate crisis. The application [...] Read more.
The opening up of the global positioning system (GPS) for non-military uses provided a new impetus for the study of the sea surface topography (SST) and geoid, especially in coastal areas which are important from the viewpoint of the climate crisis. The application of the “GPS/GNSS on boat” method, as an alternative to traditional (indirect and direct) methods, has provided detailed SST maps in coastal and oceanic areas with an accuracy of up to few centimeters. In this work we present the first critical review concerning the evolution of the “GPS/GNSS on boat” method over a period of 27 years. Twenty-one papers, covering the 27 years of related research, are critically reviewed, focusing on the innovations they introduce, the solutions they present and the accuracy they achieve. Further improvement of the method, principally of its accuracy, and the extension of SST measurements to additional coastal environments open new perspectives for the examination of open geophysical problems and climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Drones for Coastal and Coral Reef Environments)
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21 pages, 2607 KiB  
Article
Quantifying Recent Storm-Induced Change on a Small Fetch-Limited Barrier Island along North Carolina’s Crystal Coast Using Aerial Imagery and LiDAR
by Hannah Sirianni, Matthew J. Sirianni, David J. Mallinson, Niels L. Lindquist, Lexia M. Valdes-Weaver, Michael Moody, Brian Henry, Christopher Colli, Brian Rubino, Manuel Merello Peñalver and Carter Henne
Coasts 2022, 2(4), 302-322; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts2040015 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
Barrier islands within sheltered environments are an important natural defense from severe storm impacts for coastal communities worldwide. Despite their importance, these fetch-limited barrier islands remain understudied and their ability to withstand and recover from storms is not well-understood. Here, we present a [...] Read more.
Barrier islands within sheltered environments are an important natural defense from severe storm impacts for coastal communities worldwide. Despite their importance, these fetch-limited barrier islands remain understudied and their ability to withstand and recover from storms is not well-understood. Here, we present a case study of Sugarloaf Island in North Carolina that demonstrates the operational use of openly accessible LiDAR and aerial imagery data to quantify synoptic habitat, shoreline, and volumetric change between 2014 and 2020, a period that encompasses four hurricanes and a winter storm event. During this time period, our results show: (1) an 11–13% decrease in marsh and shrub habitat, (2) an average landward shoreline migration of 2.9 m yr−1 and up to 5.2 m yr−1 in extreme areas, and (3) a net volume loss of approximately 9800 m3. The results of this study highlight the importance of storms as a driver of morphologic change on Sugarloaf Island and have implications for better understanding the resiliency of fetch-limited barrier islands to storms. This work helps to enhance prerestoration data availability and supports knowledge-based decision-making regarding habitat change, erosional issues, and the efficacy of nature-based solutions to increase the resiliency of a coastal community in North Carolina. Full article
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24 pages, 953 KiB  
Perspective
Global Coasts: A Baroque Embarrassment of Riches
by Thomas A. Schlacher, Brooke Maslo and Matthieu A. de Schipper
Coasts 2022, 2(4), 278-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts2040014 - 8 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2494
Abstract
Coasts form the universal stage on which people interact with the global ocean. Our history is inextricably intertwined with the seashore, being a rich tapestry of archaeological sites that paint a vivid picture of people hunting, foraging, fishing and scavenging at the edge [...] Read more.
Coasts form the universal stage on which people interact with the global ocean. Our history is inextricably intertwined with the seashore, being a rich tapestry of archaeological sites that paint a vivid picture of people hunting, foraging, fishing and scavenging at the edge of the sea. Seascapes inspire diverse art forms celebrated through the ages. The world’s sandy beaches have a flummoxing duality of anthropocentric purpose—ranging from the horrors when being theatres of war to first love under a rising moon. ‘Man’s Love of the Sea’ continues to draw people towards the shore: the narrow coastal strip contains everything from holiday cottages to mega-cities. This coastal concentration of the human population is problematic when shorelines erode and move inland, a geological process fastened by climate change. Society’s response is often a heavy investment in coastal engineering to complement and enhance the natural storm protection capacity of beaches and dunes. The coast’s immense cultural, social, and economic significance are complemented by a wealth of natural riches. In the public’s eye, these ecological values can pale somewhat compared with more imminent ecosystem services, particularly protecting human properties from storm impacts. To re-balance the picture, here we illustrate how peer-reviewed science can be translated into ‘cool beach facts’, aimed at creating a broader environmental appreciation of ocean shores. The colourful kaleidoscope of coastal values faces a veritable array of anthropogenic stressors, from coastal armouring to environmental harm caused by off-road vehicles. Whilst these threats are not necessarily unique to coastal ecosystems, rarely do the winds of global change blow stiffer than at the edge of the sea, where millions of people have created their fragile homes on shifting sands now being increasingly eroded by rising seas. Natural shorelines accommodate such changing sea levels by moving landwards, a poignant and powerful reminder that protecting the remaining natural land is primus inter pares in coastal management. There is no doubt that coastal ecosystems and coastal communities face august trials to maintain essential ecosystem services in the face of global change. Whilst bureaucracies are not always well equipped to counteract environmental harm effectively, using measures carrying a social license, many communities and individuals have encouragingly deep values connected to living coastlines. Building on these values, and harnessing the fierce protective spirits of people, are pivotal to shaping fresh models that can enhance and re-build resilience for shores that will continue to be a ‘baroque embarrassment of coastal riches’. Full article
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19 pages, 3754 KiB  
Review
Ecosystem Services Provided by Kelp Forests of the Humboldt Current System: A Comprehensive Review
by Diego Cuba, Katerin Guardia-Luzon, Bruno Cevallos, Sabrina Ramos-Larico, Eva Neira, Alejandro Pons and Jose Avila-Peltroche
Coasts 2022, 2(4), 259-277; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts2040013 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5668
Abstract
Marine ecosystems such as kelp are gaining recognition for providing ecosystem services (ES) along the coastal regions worldwide. Here, we synthesize information from the last four decades of research on the structure, functioning and threats of kelp forests, and the ES they provide [...] Read more.
Marine ecosystems such as kelp are gaining recognition for providing ecosystem services (ES) along the coastal regions worldwide. Here, we synthesize information from the last four decades of research on the structure, functioning and threats of kelp forests, and the ES they provide in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) where information is scarce. The SALSA (Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis) framework was used for the literature survey and review. From 86 selected articles, only 4 directly discussed kelp ES in Chile. Supporting services-related articles were the most prevalent (n = 59), followed by provisioning (n = 19), regulating (n = 3) and cultural services (n = 1). ES-related research was mostly conducted in Chile (n = 77). Studies in Peru (n = 5), and in Chile and Peru at same time (n = 4) were scarce. Our search also showed that Lessonia trabeculata presented the highest number of associated taxa (n = 213), followed closely by M. pyrifera (n = 210). However, the number of phyla reported was higher in M. pyrifera (n = 17) than in the Lessonia species (n = 7–13). Natural and anthropic impacts on the biodiversity of kelp forests using novel technologies would facilitate the quantitative study and economic valuations of the services provided by these ecosystems at the Humboldt Current System. Full article
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