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Knowledge, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 10 articles

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13 pages, 472 KiB  
Article
Academic Performance of Excellence: The Impact of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Time Management Planning
by Abílio Afonso Lourenço and Maria Olímpia Paiva
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 289-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020016 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 174
Abstract
The Program for International Student Assessment highlights the persistent lack of commitment and motivation among students worldwide in their school activities, which are resulting in decreased proficiency levels in reading, mathematics, and science. The magnitude of this phenomenon, with its clear social implications, [...] Read more.
The Program for International Student Assessment highlights the persistent lack of commitment and motivation among students worldwide in their school activities, which are resulting in decreased proficiency levels in reading, mathematics, and science. The magnitude of this phenomenon, with its clear social implications, suggests that we are facing a concerning quest for immediate answers and results. This research focuses on the impact of the relationships between self-regulated learning processes and the planning of time management that is dedicated to school activities on student performance, specifically in the subjects of the Mother Tongue and Mathematics. The instruments used for analysis included the Inventory of Self-Regulated Learning Processes, the Inventory of Time Management Planning, a personal data sheet, and a school data sheet. The sample in this study consisted of 688 students from primary schools in northern Portugal. The results reveal that self-regulated learning has a positive influence on how students plan time management, both in the short and long term. Additionally, a positive and statistically significant relationship is observed between short-term and long-term time management planning and students’ academic performance. This study provides an in-depth perspective on the dynamics between these elements, shedding light on the crucial nuances that shape students’ academic journeys. Full article
9 pages, 209 KiB  
Article
The Ill-Thought-Through Aim to Eliminate the Education Gap across the Socio-Economic Spectrum
by Ognjen Arandjelović
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 280-288; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020015 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Background: In an era of dramatic technological progress, the consequent economic transformations, and an increasing need for an adaptable workforce, the importance of education has risen to the forefront of the social discourse. The concurrent increase in the awareness of issues pertaining to [...] Read more.
Background: In an era of dramatic technological progress, the consequent economic transformations, and an increasing need for an adaptable workforce, the importance of education has risen to the forefront of the social discourse. The concurrent increase in the awareness of issues pertaining to social justice and the debate over what this justice entails and how it ought to be effected, feed into the education policy more than ever before. From the nexus of the aforementioned considerations, concern about the so-called education gap has emerged, with worldwide efforts to close it. Methods: I analyze the premises behind such efforts and demonstrate that they are founded upon fundamentally flawed ideas. Results: I show that in a society in which education is delivered equitably, education gaps emerge naturally as a consequence of differentiation due to talents, the tendency for matched mate selection, and the heritability of intellectual traits. Conclusion: I issue a call for a redirection of efforts away from the ill-founded idea of closing the education gap to the understanding of the magnitude of its unfair contributions, as well as to those social aspects that can modulate it in accordance with what a society deems fair according to its values. Full article
15 pages, 7443 KiB  
Article
The Process of Digital Data Flow in RE/CAD/RP/CAI Systems Concerning Planning Surgical Procedures in the Craniofacial Area
by Paweł Turek, Ewelina Dudek, Mateusz Grzywa and Kacper Więcek
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 265-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020014 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 212
Abstract
This paper presents the process of digital data flow in RE/CAD/RP/CAI systems to develop models for planning surgical procedures in the craniofacial area. At the first RE modeling stage, digital data processing, segmentation, and the reconstruction of the geometry of the anatomical structures [...] Read more.
This paper presents the process of digital data flow in RE/CAD/RP/CAI systems to develop models for planning surgical procedures in the craniofacial area. At the first RE modeling stage, digital data processing, segmentation, and the reconstruction of the geometry of the anatomical structures were performed. During the CAD modeling stage, three different concepts were utilized. The first concept was used to create a tool that could mold the geometry of the cranial vault. The second concept was created to prepare a prototype implant that would complement the anterior part of the mandibular geometry. And finally, the third concept was used to design a customized prototype surgical plate that would match the mandibular geometry accurately. Physical models were made using a rapid prototyping technique. A Bambu Lab X1 3D printer was used for this purpose. The process of geometric accuracy evaluation was carried out on manufactured prototypes of surgical plates made of ABS+, CPE, PLA+, and PETG material. In the geometric accuracy evaluation process, the smallest deviation values were obtained for the ABS plus material, within a tolerance of ±0.1 mm, and the largest were obtained for CPE (±0.2 mm) and PLA plus (±0.18 mm). In terms of the surface roughness evaluation, the highest value of the Sa parameter was obtained for the PLA plus material, which was 4.15 µm, and the lowest was obtained for the CPE material, equal to 3.62 µm. The knowledge of the flow of digital data and the identification of factors determining the accuracy of mapping the geometry of anatomical structures allowed for the development of a procedure that improves the modeling and manufacturing of anatomical structures within the craniofacial region. Full article
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13 pages, 822 KiB  
Article
Patterns of Service Utilization across the Full Continuum of Care: Using Patient Journeys to Assess Disparities in Access to Health Services
by Jonas Bambi, Gracia Yunruo Dong, Yudi Santoso, Ken Moselle, Sophie Dugas, Kehinde Olobatuyi, Abraham Rudnick, Ernie Chang and Alex Kuo
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 252-264; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020013 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Healthcare organizations have a contractual obligation to the public to address population-level inequities to health services access and shed light on them. Various studies have focused on achieving equitable access to healthcare services for vulnerable patients. However, these studies do not provide a [...] Read more.
Healthcare organizations have a contractual obligation to the public to address population-level inequities to health services access and shed light on them. Various studies have focused on achieving equitable access to healthcare services for vulnerable patients. However, these studies do not provide a nuanced perspective based on the local reality across the full continuum of care. In previous work, graph topology was used to provide visual depictions of the dynamics of patients’ movement across a complex healthcare system. Using patients’ encounters data represented as a graph, this study expands on previous work and proposes a methodology to identify and quantify cohort-specific disparities in accessing healthcare services across the continuum of care. The result has demonstrated that a more nuanced approach to assessing access-to-care disparity is doable using patients’ patterns of service utilization from a longitudinal cross-continuum healthcare dataset. The proposed method can be used as part of a toolkit to support healthcare organizations that wish to structure their services to provide better care to their vulnerable populations based on the local realities. This provides a first step in addressing inequities for vulnerable patients in accessing healthcare services. However, additional steps need to be considered to fully address these inequities. Full article
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19 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
Is Science Able to Perform under Pressure?
by Ho Fai Chan, Nikita Ferguson, David Stadelmann and Benno Torgler
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 233-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020012 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Science has been an incredibly powerful and revolutionary force. However, it is not clear whether science is suited to performance under pressure; generally, science achieves best in its usual comfort zone of patience, caution, and slowness. But, if science is organized knowledge and [...] Read more.
Science has been an incredibly powerful and revolutionary force. However, it is not clear whether science is suited to performance under pressure; generally, science achieves best in its usual comfort zone of patience, caution, and slowness. But, if science is organized knowledge and acts as a guiding force for making informed decisions, it is important to understand how science and scientists perform as a reliable and valuable institution in a global crisis. This paper provides insights and reflections based on the experience of the COVID-19 pandemic and from an analytical perspective. In particular, we analyze aspects such as speed, transparency, trust, data sharing, scientists in the political arena, and the psychology of scientists—all of which are areas inviting more detailed investigations by future studies conducting systematic empirical studies. Full article
20 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Reflections on Knowledge Production in Humanities from an Academic Exchange Experience
by Mariángela Napoli
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 213-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020011 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Over the last two decades, the knowledge production, research, and reconfiguration of universities have been understood as ways of giving new meanings to the university–society binomial. In this regard, humanities are the subject of multiple debates in the face of ideas about their [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, the knowledge production, research, and reconfiguration of universities have been understood as ways of giving new meanings to the university–society binomial. In this regard, humanities are the subject of multiple debates in the face of ideas about their impact in relation to the “other sciences”. Based on these premises, this article sets out to explore possible meanings attributed by researchers to the concepts of commitment, mobilization, and transfer of research in humanities in view of the debates on the university–society interaction and the third mission of the university. The methodology used will address bibliographical analysis, theoretical background, and statements from different institutions, as well as the analysis of material from four interviews. As a first instance, the preliminary results show that strengthening critical thinking as forms of commitment emerge as central senses, focusing on Hungarian characteristics and productions in order to unravel the ways of understanding and imagining Eastern European reality. In this respect, the discussion of certain aspects of Western knowledge is seen as a task associated with social commitment with public universities as a focus of resistance. Full article
19 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
An Active Approach for Teaching and Learning Electrical Technology
by Carla Terron-Santiago, Jordi Burriel-Valencia, Javier Martinez-Roman and Angel Sapena-Bano
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 194-212; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020010 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 422
Abstract
This contribution describes the change in methodology introduced in the subject of electrical technology within the industrial technologies engineering degree at Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial, Universitat Politècnica de València. The main purpose of the methodology change was to improve the attainment [...] Read more.
This contribution describes the change in methodology introduced in the subject of electrical technology within the industrial technologies engineering degree at Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial, Universitat Politècnica de València. The main purpose of the methodology change was to improve the attainment of student outcomes by the introduction of project-based learning supported by flipped teaching. Moreover, a software tool was developed that generates standard exercise statements for the design of electrical installations. Using this tool, students can practice with different problem exercises, enter their solution, and receive immediate feedback on their results, improving the teaching–learning experience. The level of student outcomes attained was improved, and other positive aspects arose from the experience, such as boosting students’ responsibility in their own learning (learn to learn), their ability to solve problems, and students’ motivation. Furthermore, the instructors’ opinions on the methodology change were highly positive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision-Making: Processes and Perspectives)
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23 pages, 3103 KiB  
Article
Value Perception Analysis in the Brazilian Company of Research and Industrial Innovation
by Isabela Evora Moreira, Diego de Castro Fettermann and Viviane Vasconcellos Ferreira Grubisic
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 171-193; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020009 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the perceived value of services provided by the Brazilian Company of Research and Industrial Innovation (EMBRAPII) to its contracting ministries and institutional partners. It utilizes the theory of value perception analysis and Constructivist Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to identify [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the perceived value of services provided by the Brazilian Company of Research and Industrial Innovation (EMBRAPII) to its contracting ministries and institutional partners. It utilizes the theory of value perception analysis and Constructivist Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to identify critical elements for evaluating EMBRAPII’s contracting organizations. Brainstorming sessions with experts led to the identification of five criteria and 14 sub-criteria. These criteria include a relationship with EMBRAPII, a signed agreement, EMBRAPII’s reputation, technical capacity, and the ability to adapt to changes. Data were entered into the second version of the MyMCDA-C software for value perception analysis. The findings showed a positive perceived value, with the best-performing sub-criteria relating to the organization’s reputation and the agreement signed. The study concludes that EMBRAPII needs to improve in areas such as adapting to change, the adequacy of its proposals for distinct types of partnership, and social media positioning. However, the contracting organizations generally support EMBRAPII’s direction and proposed solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision-Making: Processes and Perspectives)
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30 pages, 7913 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Omni-Secure Firewall System in a Private Cloud Environment
by Salman Mahmood, Raza Hasan, Nor Adnan Yahaya, Saqib Hussain and Muzammil Hussain
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 141-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020008 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 713
Abstract
This research explores the optimization of firewall systems within private cloud environments, specifically focusing on a 30-day evaluation of the Omni-Secure Firewall. Employing a multi-metric approach, the study introduces an innovative effectiveness metric (E) that amalgamates precision, recall, and redundancy considerations. The evaluation [...] Read more.
This research explores the optimization of firewall systems within private cloud environments, specifically focusing on a 30-day evaluation of the Omni-Secure Firewall. Employing a multi-metric approach, the study introduces an innovative effectiveness metric (E) that amalgamates precision, recall, and redundancy considerations. The evaluation spans various machine learning models, including random forest, support vector machines, neural networks, k-nearest neighbors, decision tree, stochastic gradient descent, naive Bayes, logistic regression, gradient boosting, and AdaBoost. Benchmarking against service level agreement (SLA) metrics showcases the Omni-Secure Firewall’s commendable performance in meeting predefined targets. Noteworthy metrics include acceptable availability, target response time, efficient incident resolution, robust event detection, a low false-positive rate, and zero data-loss incidents, enhancing the system’s reliability and security, as well as user satisfaction. Performance metrics such as prediction latency, CPU usage, and memory consumption further highlight the system’s functionality, efficiency, and scalability within private cloud environments. The introduction of the effectiveness metric (E) provides a holistic assessment based on organizational priorities, considering precision, recall, F1 score, throughput, mitigation time, rule latency, and redundancy. Evaluation across machine learning models reveals variations, with random forest and support vector machines exhibiting notably high accuracy and balanced precision and recall. In conclusion, while the Omni-Secure Firewall System demonstrates potential, inconsistencies across machine learning models underscore the need for optimization. The dynamic nature of private cloud environments necessitates continuous monitoring and adjustment of security systems to fully realize benefits while safeguarding sensitive data and applications. The significance of this study lies in providing insights into optimizing firewall systems for private cloud environments, offering a framework for holistic security assessment and emphasizing the need for robust, reliable firewall systems in the dynamic landscape of private clouds. Study limitations, including the need for real-world validation and exploration of advanced machine learning models, set the stage for future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Knowledge Creation and Retention)
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21 pages, 3079 KiB  
Article
DIKW as a General and Digital Twin Action Framework: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom
by Michael Grieves
Knowledge 2024, 4(2), 120-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4020007 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 927
Abstract
This paper will discuss Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom, which is commonly referred to as DIKW. The DIKW Pyramid Model is a hierarchical model that is often referenced in both academic and practitioner circles. This model will be discussed and shown to be [...] Read more.
This paper will discuss Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom, which is commonly referred to as DIKW. The DIKW Pyramid Model is a hierarchical model that is often referenced in both academic and practitioner circles. This model will be discussed and shown to be faulty on several levels, including a lack of definitional agreement. A new DIKW framework with systems orientation will be proposed that focuses on what the DIKW elements do in the way humans think, not what they are by definition. Information as a replacement for wasted physical resources in goal-oriented tasks will be a central organizing point. The paper will move the DIKW discussion to the computer-based concept of Digital Twins (DTs) and its augmentation of how we can use DIKW to be more effective and efficient. This will especially be the case as we move toward Intelligent Digital Twins (IDTs) with Artificial Intelligence (AI). Full article
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