Development of Ti PVD Films to Limit the Carburization of Metal Powders during SPS Process
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Sintering of Pure Iron Using Graphite Foils without Coating
3.2. Sintering of Pure Iron Using Graphite Foils Coated with a Ti PVD Film
3.3. Mechanical Properties
- Without coating, the carburization of iron powder took place during sintering (up to 400 µm) and five zones were detected from the top surface to the bulk:
- zone 1: lamellar pearlite + cementite + abnormal ferrite (corresponding to hypereutectoid steel);
- zone 2: lamellar pearlite (corresponding to eutectoid steel);
- zone 3: pearlite + ferrite (corresponding to hypoeutectoid steel);
- zone 4–5: recrystallized ferrite followed by grain growth (corresponding to iron).
- Carburization of iron powder is faster on top (and bottom) of the sample, compared to the side in contact with the graphite foil surrounding the mold, thanks to the pressure and the current flow.
- The application of a Ti PVD film of 1.5 and 1.1 µm on graphite foils is effective to completely avoid carburization of iron powder (top, bottom and sides). Iron diffusion was revealed inside the Ti film of 1.5 µm thickness.
- With a Ti film of 0.5 µm thickness carburization of iron powder was not avoided on top and bottom of the sintered sample, but only on the side.
- Microhardness profiles confirm the OM observations.
- Ti coatings with thicknesses between 1.1 and 0.5 µm have to be tested to find the minimum coating thickness assuring protection against carbon diffusion. Anyway, the obtained results suggest that the use of graphite foils coated by a thin PVD film can represent a large-scale effective solution to avoid carbon diffusion during SPS process in the case of metal powders.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Ardigo-Besnard, M.-R.; Besnard, A.; Moser, M.; Bussière, F. Development of Ti PVD Films to Limit the Carburization of Metal Powders during SPS Process. Solids 2021, 2, 395-406. https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2040025
Ardigo-Besnard M-R, Besnard A, Moser M, Bussière F. Development of Ti PVD Films to Limit the Carburization of Metal Powders during SPS Process. Solids. 2021; 2(4):395-406. https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2040025Chicago/Turabian Style
Ardigo-Besnard, Maria-Rosa, Aurélien Besnard, Mathias Moser, and Florian Bussière. 2021. "Development of Ti PVD Films to Limit the Carburization of Metal Powders during SPS Process" Solids 2, no. 4: 395-406. https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2040025